2007 FR Cephalization and the development of a brain were important step in animal phylogenesis. a) Discuss the evolutionary origin and reconciling signifi assce of cephalization in animal phyla. b) Describe the development of the sickening musical arrangements in the vertebrate embryo. c) At the sound of shattering glass, pile quick turn their heads. Discuss hoe the human nervous scheme functions to produce this type of rejoinder to an external stimulus. 2007B The defense lawyers mechanisms of the human ashes to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be shared out into nonspecific solutions and specific responses. a) beg absent how THREE types of nonspecific defenses can prevent the entry and/or establishment of a pathogen in a persons body. b) Discuss how the immune system responds to an initial pathogenic exposure, and how this initial exposure can die hard to a faster response following a scrap ex posure to the kindred pathogen. c) explicate the biological mechanisms that lead to the rejection of transplanted organs. 2006 FR The evolution of circulatory systems allowed larger and more-complex animals to arise. a) Describe the respiratory and digestive systems specialise structures that quicken the movement of group O and glucose into the circulatory system of mammals.
b) rationalise how oxygen and glucose are transported within the circulatory system of mammals. c) Explain the sell of oxygen and glucose from the blood and into the active cells of mammals. 2005FR An important defense against diseases in vertebrate anima! ls is the ability to eliminate, inactivate, or destroy orthogonal substances and organisms. Explain how the immune system achieves THREE of the following: Provides an contiguous nonspecific immune response Activates T and B cells in response to an infection Responds to a later exposure to the same infectious agent Distinguishes self-importance from nonselfIf you want to get a liberal essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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