Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Technology Social Media Social Apps Music Assignment

Technology Social Media Social Apps Music - Assignment Example MixPod is a music application that lets you create and embed your own playlist on Facebook profile. Music selection can be viewed at the MixPod site where you can choose among a large number of playlist styles. This also requires a MixPod account to set-up, thus you have to create one (http://mashable.com/2009/11/10/music-facebook-applications/). Music Challenge is a very popular music trivia application to have almost 3.4 million monthly users who are active. It is one of the best ways to put your knowledge of music into a challenge. This will let you and the other players answer the trivia of identifying the song based on the audio player (http://mashable.com/2009/11/10/music-facebook-applications/). My Band is another famous music application tool in Facebook that is promotional in nature. It aims to enhance your page in Facebook providing information about gig schedules, mailing lists, music sales and analytics who are listening and sharing your uploaded tunes (http://mashable.com/2009/11/10/music-facebook-applications/). Share Song is a simple yet effective music application that helps you find and share music easily. It allows the users to search, listen and share tracks. If the track exists in Grooveshark database, the users can post it to their profile and share it with their friends (http://mashable.com/2009/11/10/music-facebook-applications/). Tinysong is powered by Grooveshark’s P2P music sharing service which offers the users an enormous library of the song to choose from which can be shared through Twitter.  Twt.fm is another famous music application for Twitter users that allows you to connect to your twitter account and let you recreate your page to store your playlists, background, and avatar through an OAuth.  Ã‚  

Monday, October 28, 2019

Stakeholder Influence Essay Example for Free

Stakeholder Influence Essay Programs in the Human Service industry are directly and indirectly affected by its primary, secondary and, key stakeholders. Stakeholders could also be persons who are not directly affected by the program itself. These people can be those who have strong interest in the cause or program, those who are of political and philosophical and academic persons. Stakeholders are not just the funding companies but are also the staff members, the administrators of the program, the community the program wishes to provide services in, other businesses that may be used to serve on behalf of a company or organization and more importantly the people and families of the people who are being helped directly by the program. The needs and expectations of the stakeholders affects a program because it is important to hear everyone’s voice in the building of an organization or program. It is also important to know the expectations in order to create a working program that benefits those that should be benefitted and to acknowledge the concerns of those who will be doing the work or contributing to the program in some way. The needs and expectations of the funding agencies should be met simply because they are the funding agency and have specific drives for what they intend to fund. It is important to honor their wishes so that the program remains funded and the requirements usually shape the program in its entirety. If a funding company wants the program to include more people than what a program wants to help it is because the funding agency has done its research and want to lend more help in areas that may need more help. One of the most important stakeholders in the funding organization. Most often  the funding agencies will have their own expectations for the program and the programs evaluations. The very first need the funding agency may incur is the need for the program to fit into the requirements of the funding. The expectations are that the program does what it says it will and not misappropriates the funds given. The roles and expectations of the administrators in the PEACE Domestic Violence Agency would be to make sure that the staff are doing their jobs to the best of their ability and creating ways to improve those abilities through continuing education, seminars and necessary staff meetings. They should also do internal evaluations to point out the areas that may be lacking and help those to do better. The administrators should make sure that the staff are caring for the clients as they should be without overstepping boundaries into personal attachments that would create conflicts of interests. The program staff should be up to date in human services training and use their skills to properly assist the clients in their development of growing beyond past traumas and learning to make better decisions. They should be aware of all other human services agencies where the clients can get help to live independently. Staff should also be professional and show the clients that there is still some positivity in the world by exuding such positivity and handling the clients delicately. The community has a very differing role and expectation in this program. As a stakeholder they should be more aware of the violence and report it more often so that something can be done about it. Concerning the domestic violence between spouses the community should be more watchful and try to get those in need to help and those who are the perpetrators the attention they need as well. It is also the responsibility of those that are helped to spread the word about being helped in order to reach those who believe they have no way out. The family of the clients help should remain supportive or obtain help or counseling in order to provide such support because the lack of support to an abused family member leaves them vulnerable to returning to the same situations and the PEACE organization does  not want that to occur. It will also be beneficial for young adults and teenagers that come into the program to pass on what they have been taught to their friends and families in efforts to eliminate crime or provide a way for the friends and family to remain law abiding citizens and avoid violence and raise awareness as well. The most important stakeholder is the funding agency. This funding program is called â€Å"Supporting Families† and they seek to raise awareness about domestic violence while promoting better lives to those affected by youth violence and domestic violence by helping them cope with trauma, family members in prison and providing rehabilitation to youth who have been involved with the criminal justice system. This foundation seeks to improve â€Å"skills, confidence and personal support networks to enable them to lead fulfilled and successful lives.† (Appendix A) The role and expectations of the funding agency are to make sure that their objectives are met. If they are not the funding could very well cease and the program will end if further funding is not found. The funding agency can lead evaluations of their own and determine what needs work or a decrease or increase of funding. Keeping to the objectives put forth by the funding agency could increase the reputation of the organization and lead to future funding from other sources as well. Compromising within these roles can be as simple as being lenient with staff that develop emotional attachments to their clients but do not engage with them on an intimate level. The administrator could delegate evaluations and other tasks to other capable staff to free up more time to focus on more important matters. The funding agency could compromise with the organization by not strictly adhering to their objectives. If one objective is not met simply because it is not in the budget it can be looked over in the interest of the other programs working smoothly but with less funding. â€Å"Supporting Families† funding opportunity seeks to improve lives and the community’s lives as a whole. The expectations of their evaluations are to have documentation on all clients who are helped and feedback once they are done with the program to see how well the  program assisted them. This is to measure the success or failings of the programs intentions. The organization will also need documentation on changes, drawbacks and new information that could help the program succeed and create better areas of care to provide the clients with even more options to assist them make a positive change. Stakeholders have a great amount of influence in any human service organization and it is vital that their expectations be drawn out, developed and used to integrate differing principle so that the program can work to the best of the stakeholders abilities.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Buddhism and Ecology :: essays research papers

If there was ever a culture that truly cared for the Earth, it was that of Buddhism. Buddhism itself is often known for commitment to World ecology. This is explored in the essay, Relational Holism, by David Landis Barnhill, in the book, Deep Ecology and World Religions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The subject of holism is brought to us many times and often acknowledgement of critical views is used to help convey the information. Beginning with a strong statement by Barnhill, â€Å"Critics of deep ecology have often attacked its holistic views of self and cosmology. For some, holism is both distorted and dangerous because it fails to affirm the individuality of beings and recognize the centrality of relations among individuals.† (page 79)Most people, especially of the western hemisphere, would like to think of themselves as individuals and unique. This is interesting in that, many eastern civilizations want the opposite. It is even a saying among Japanese, â€Å"the nail that sticks out is pounded in,†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The next illustration of holism is brought to us on page 85, â€Å"In the conventional view, waves are independent, self-existing things. From the perspective of emptiness, however, the waves are recognized as lacking independent existence: they are not water in a distinct and temporary form, yet the waves are not separate from the ocean, they are the ocean.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Besides emphasizing holism, Barnhill discusses identification, with self and nature. â€Å"One way of seeing that the holism prized by deep ecologists can be combined with the relationality emphasized by ecofeministsis to consider the notion of identification.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Nature vs Nurture Essay

Hannibal Lecter was a young boy that grew up during a horrible time period; World War II. Everyone around him died, and was left by himself with his little sister Mischa. During this time there was people pretending to be â€Å"help† but in reality they were robbers. These people took over the cabin where the Lecter family was hiding. They take hostage Hannibal and Mischa. Over a few weeks food starts getting harder and harder to find, they are struggling to find food to eat and they must do whatever they can to survive. This is the first time that Hannibal encounters a moment in his childhood where he sees a little girl younger than him be killed and eaten; cannibalism. For many years he had to watch these men, eat things raw, with feathers coming out of their mouths and their faces full of blood. Things like these in a kids childhood are very dramatic. For over a few years Hannibal never spoke to anyone, only during his sleep when he would be calling for his sister. He was mistreated and abused at the orphanage he was in, which was his own castle. Hannibal’s uncle picked him up at the orphanage to take him and Mischa to Paris, France, but unfortunately Mischa was nowhere to be found. Hannibal, never spoke to anyone, until one day someone disrespected his aunt, Lady Murasaki. That was the day his first words came out. After that he would speak to everyone. One day Hannibal meets the butcher, the person who disrespected his aunt, and kills him with a sword that his aunt had from her father’s samurai. Hannibal took on medical school, and he worked with dead bodies. Hannibal takes on a quest to find the people who killed Mischa, and travels back to the Lecter castle. Upon arriving to his country one of the people who checked his passport happened to be one of the guys who was there when Mischa was killed. This guy follows him to Lecter castle and tried to kill him but failed. Instead Hannibal tied him to a tree and to his horse, once the guy spoke Hannibal just killed him and continued looking for the rest. The leader of the group sends one guy to go after him and kill him while he is at the medical school alone, however this plan ends up backfiring him, since he kills the guy and drowning him. After that officer Popil walks in to speak to him, but discovers nothing. Hannibal was always looking for a companion, but never found one until his later years when he meets an FBI agent named Clarice. She investigates him and tries to arrest him and put him in jail while every ime she is in trouble he rescues her, and saves her life one way or another. At the end Hannibal ends up escaping with her, since she was looking for a fatherly love, which hi provided and Hannibal wanted a woman. Overall, Hannibal grew to be the person he is because of everything he went though in his childhood, if it was not because of that he would of been fine. Every single thing that happened to him scarred him, and left him marked for the rest of his life.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Social Ills of a Society

Societal values of every society is sustained by the organs of the society. interestinly,the most important organ is the goverment. so goverment is the most important organ reponsible in maintaining societal values. We are all living in a democratic world today and like democracy is clearly define as â€Å"the goverment of the people by the people and for the people†,this means the goverment is the peolple that make up the society. Now,a society that has failed in all sense of the word,is not without the fault of the ones that inhabitates the environs. hen crime and iimmoral decadence become the order of the day,and is seen as the norm in a society,then we have an issue in our hand. I mean a society where boys of 18 years are drug barons and heads of gangs responsible for murder,robbery,and distribution of illicit drugs in the society. but inspite of all these,they are celebrated and worshipped by the society which they have destroyed. Education is one area that has recieved s et back greatly in this whole drama,as many young ones growing up don't see models in the light of education around them,yo follow. ut they see a lot of gangsters that are making money even from a very young age. so this becomes the benchmark for measuring success in this society.Those that even went to school,immediatly they got a job that could give them some money,they left the society and went some place else to build a life of thier own,as they really could'nt fit in to that world back home. This is the case with many african societies,and this has brought about alot of death,rape,unwanted pregnancies,child abuse and drug abuse. etc. but the society still feell trapped in this quagmire irrespective of the huge prices that is been paid for all of this. his is where agencies both govermental and non-govermental,should become more strategic in saving lives and the society. they should come up with orientation programes on the effect of drugs,alcohol, and crime. the goverment shoul d embark on compulsory secondary school education for all youth within the age of education. they should arrest and remand all crime defaulters so as to serve as deterrent for the others. they should build more schools in such societies and increase the activities of the law enforcement and drug enforcement agents in these kind of environs. All of these will help curb the menace of crime and drug in the socities.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Snakehead Hype essays

Snakehead Hype essays The snakehead fish should not be completely prohibited. I believe it would be better to restrict it than completely banned. The media is using this small story and blowing it way out of proportion. They are taking advantage of the fact that most of the United States knows very little or nothing about fish, let alone snakeheads. With the media hyping up this story that forces the government take have to take action. So with the war on terrorism and the problems on Wall Street, the United States decides to declare war on the snakehead. I agree that the snakehead fish is a danger to our ecosystem, and if there are too many in the wild, they could extinguish lots of our native species because they have no natural predators here. If so, say the alarmists, we've got cause to worry. The snakehead can exceed 3 ft. in length and will eat pretty much anything that can fit into its jaws. What's more, the Patuxent River is only 75 yds away, and the fishwith an air sac in its digestive system that allows it to absorb oxygen, and the ability to flop its way across small stretches of muddy landcould soon wriggle into the nation's waterways. It is true that the snakehead fish can live on land for a short while, but it prefers not to. Snakeheads are nothing more than common swamp fish. In Southeast Asia, where they originate, they live in irrigation ditches and rice paddies, thriving there until the dry season, when their pools shrink and they squirm along to the next pocket of water. Such clumsy locomotion does not lend itse lf to wanderlust, and snakeheads in a good pond are likely to stay there forever. "Snakeheads are extremely lazy and sedentary," says Hawaii biologist Ron Weidenbach. Nor do they much care for airat least not the way they're said to. Reports had it that they can live on land for up to three days, but the best they usually seem to manage is several hours under wet burlap in open ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Learn to Pronounce and Count Cardinal Numbers in Italian

Learn to Pronounce and Count Cardinal Numbers in Italian You might find cardinal (counting) numbers the most useful to know- you will need them to express  time, record dates, do  math, interpret recipe amounts, and, of course, count. In Italian, cardinal numbers are written as one word. Use the following table to memorize numbers from 1 to 100. ITALIAN CARDINAL NUMBERS: 1-100 1 uno OO-noh 2 due DOO-eh 3 tre TREH 4 quattro KWAHT-troh 5 cinque CHEEN-kweh 6 sei SEH-ee 7 sette SET-teh 8 otto OHT-toh 9 nove NOH-veh 10 dieci dee-EH-chee 11 undici OON-dee-chee 12 dodici DOH-dee-chee 13 tredici TREH-dee-chee 14 quattordici kwaht-TOR-dee-chee 15 quindici KWEEN-dee-chee 16 sedici SEH-dee-chee 17 diciassette dee-chahs-SET-teh 18 diciotto dee-CHOHT-toh 19 diciannove dee-chahn-NOH-veh 20 venti VEN-tee 21 ventuno ven-TOO-noh 22 ventidue ven-tee-DOO-eh 23 ventitr ven-tee-TREH 24 ventiquattro ven-tee-KWAHT-troh 25 venticinque ven-tee-CHEEN-kweh 26 ventisei ven-tee-SEH-ee 27 ventisette ven-tee-SET-teh 28 ventotto ven-TOHT-toh 29 ventinove ven-tee-NOH-veh 30 trenta TREN-tah 40 quaranta kwah-RAHN-tah 50 cinquanta cheen-KWAHN-tah 60 sessanta ses-SAHN-tah 70 settanta set-TAHN-ta 80 ottanta oht-TAHN-ta 90 novanta noh-VAHN-tah 100 cento CHEN-toh The numbers  venti,  trenta,  quaranta,  cinquanta, and so on drop the final vowel when combined with  uno  and  otto.  Tre  is written without an accent, but  ventitrà ©,  trentatrà ©, and so on are written with an accent. Beyond 100 Do you remember those good old days before the euros arrival in Italy when you would pay a few thousand  lire  for admission to a museum or a  cappuccino  and  biscotti? Tourists needed more than just the numbers up to 100 to get around.  Lire  are history, but learning numbers greater than 100 might still prove useful. Though they might seem unwieldy, after a bit of practice youll be rolling them off your tongue like a pro. ITALIAN CARDINAL NUMBERS: 100 AND GREATER 100 cento CHEN-toh 101 centouno/centuno cheh-toh-OO-noh/chehn-TOO-noh 150 centocinquanta cheh-toh-cheen-KWAHN-tah 200 duecento doo-eh-CHEN-toh 300 trecento treh-CHEN-toh 400 quattrocento kwaht-troh-CHEN-toh 500 cinquecento cheen-kweh-CHEN-toh 600 seicento seh-ee-CHEN-toh 700 settecento set-the-CHEN-toh 800 ottocento oht-toh-CHEN-toh 900 novecento noh-veh-CHEN-toh 1.000 mille MEEL-leh 1.001 milleuno meel-leh-OO-noh 1.200 milleduecento meel-leh-doo-eh-CHEN-toh 2.000 duemila doo-eh-MEE-lah 10.000 diecimila dee-eh-chee-MEE-lah 15.000 quindicimila kween-dee-chee-MEE-lah 100.000 centomila chen-toh-mee-leh 1.000.000 un milione OON mee-lee-OH-neh 2.000.000 due milioni DOO-eh mee-lee-OH-neh 1.000.000.000 un miliardo OON mee-lee-ARE-doh

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Vigencia de la visa americana y cuándo ya no es válida

Vigencia de la visa americana y cundo ya no es vlida Pocos asuntos migratorios causan ms confusià ³n que entender cul es la vigencia de la visa americana y cul es el significado exacto de la la fecha de vencimiento. Para evitar graves errores que pueden costar muy caro en este artà ­culo se explican la vigencia de 3 situaciones: la visa de inmigrantela situacià ³n de los que pueden ingresar como turistas o para negocios sin visa a Estados Unidos visas no inmigrante, como, por ejemplo, las de turista, trabajo temporal, intercambio o estudiante. En el caso de las visas no inmigrantes se informa, adems, de cà ³mo es posible estar legalmente en Estados Unidos con la visa expirada y tambià ©n el caso contrario: cuando a pesar de tener una visa sin vencer se est en el paà ­s en situacià ³n irregular, lo que puede dar lugar a consecuencias serias como cancelacià ³n de la visa, expulsià ³n inmediata o deportacià ³n. Finalmente, para el caso de las visas no inmigrante en la categorà ­a de turista y/o negocios, tambià ©n conocidas como B1y B2, se especifica por cunto tiempo mximo pueden ser emitidas y cuntos ingresos a Estados Unidos estn permitidos Vigencia de la visa de inmigrante Esta visa se aprueba en los consulados o embajadas de los Estados Unidos y permiten ingresar a los extranjeros a los Estados Unidos como residentes permanentes legales. En otras palabras, como titulares de una green card. Cuando se aprueba esta visa su titular tiene un plazo de 6 meses para ingresar a Estados Unidos. Y es precisamente en el momento en que ingresa en el que se convierte en residente. Su visa estampada en el pasaporte y sellada en un control migratorio se convierte automticamente en una green card. Unas semanas ms tarde el nuevo residente recibir la tarjeta de plstico por correo. Adems, las tarjetas de residencia tienen una vigencia de 10 aà ±os, pero su titular puede perder ese estatus si no reside habitualmente dentro de Estados Unidos. Vigencia de estadà ­a legal para los que ingresan sin visa Los ciudadanos de 38 paà ­ses pueden ingresar a Estados Unidos sin visa cuando el objetivo de su viaje es negocios o turismo en aplicacià ³n del Programa de Exencià ³n de visas (VWP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s). A esta regla general aplica una excepcià ³n: cuando se llega en un avià ³n o barco privado a un puesto migratorio aà ©reo o marà ­timo es imprescindible presentar una visa de turista o de negocios regular, no admitià ©ndose viajar sin visa. Cuando los ciudadanos de un paà ­s integrado en el VWP ingresan a Estados Unidos por avià ³n o por barco es necesario solicitar previamente y por internet una Autorizacià ³n que se conoce con el nombre de ESTA. El tiempo que dura la ESTA es de un mximo de 90 dà ­as y no  es posible extender la permanencia. En otras palabras, si se ingresa sin visa, no se puede pedir una extensià ³n porque, precisamente, no se tiene visa. No existe excepcià ³n a esta regla y quedarse ms tiempo de esos 90 dà ­as significa quedarse ilegalmente en el paà ­s y perder el privilegio de volver a ingresar sin haber pedido previamente una visa a un consulado o embajada americano. Vigencia y vencimiento de las visas no inmigrantes La fecha de caducidad de la  visa americana indica el dà ­a mximo que se puede solicitar el ingreso a Estados Unidos al llegar a una aduana. Pero hay ms, ya que es posible estar legalmente en USA con la visa caducada y al revà ©s: estar ilegalmente con el visa sin haber alcanzado su fecha de expiracià ³n. Para evitar problemas, como que  cancelen la visa o incluso que te prohiban regresar a Estados Unidos por tres o diez aà ±os, es necesario saber quà © realmente significa la fecha de caducidad en un visado americano. En este artà ­culo, adems, se explica quà © hacer cuando se tiene el pasaporte vencido pero la visa no y tambià ©n cundo hay que sacarse una nueva, aunque no està © expirada. Adems, destacar que en el caso de las visas lser, tambià ©n conocidas como tarjetas de cruce local, aplican reglas especiales que nada tienen que ver con las de las visas de turista normales. La fecha de caducidad de la visa americana no inmigrante La fecha de caducidad quiere decir, con carcter general, que ese dà ­a es el à ºltimo en que una persona extranjera puede  presentarse en un aeropuerto, puerto marà ­timo o puesto terrestre fronterizo de los Estados Unidos y solicitar el ingreso al paà ­s. Sin embargo, hay excepciones. Y es que lo dicho en el prrafo anterior aplica a las visas de entrada mà ºltiple. Es decir, las que estn seà ±aladas con la letra M en el apartado de Entradas. Sin embargo, en algunos paà ­ses las visas de turistas y de negocios se dan para un solo ingreso o un nà ºmero  limitado. En el caso de los paà ­ses hispanoparlantes, en la actualidad lo habitual para todos los paà ­ses es que las visas de turista y de negocios y la combinacià ³n de ambas se den por 10 aà ±os por entradas mà ºltiples. La excepcià ³n es Cuba donde se aprueban con una validez de 6 meses para una sola entrada o, en ocasiones y solamente para las visas B-2, por 5 aà ±os con entradas mà ºltiples. Por à ºltimo, en el caso de las antiguas visas indefinidas, tambià ©n conocidas como Burrough, decir que dejaron de ser vlidas el 1 de abril de 2004. Por lo tanto, las personas que tienen estos visados y desean ingresar a Estados Unidos deben solicitar una nueva visa. En contra de lo que muchas personas creen, la fecha de vencimiento de la visa no quiere decir que un extranjero puede permanecer legalmente en Estados Unidos mientras no se llega a ese dà ­a. Cà ³mo saber dà ­a fecha tope de permanencia legal en EE.UU. Si se llega  con una visa de turista o de negocios, es muy comà ºn que te conceda 180 dà ­as, pero puede establecer menos dà ­as.  En el I-94 queda registrada esa fecha. Adems, en la pgina oficial de la CBP para este formulario se puede obtener informacià ³n interesante sobre, por ejemplo, el historial de ingresos y salidas y se puede obtener una copia del mismo. Los extranjeros con visas temporales de inversià ³n, tipo E-2, reciben visados vlidos por 2 aà ±os que pueden renovarse todas las veces que se quiera, siempre que se cumplan las condiciones de la visa. En el caso de visas temporales de trabajo, cada categorà ­a tiene su propio tiempo de duracià ³n de la validez. Por ejemplo, la H-1B, popular entre profesionales, se aprueba por un mximo de 3 aà ±os renovable por otros 3. Adems, los extranjeros que llegan con visa visa temporal de estudios, intercambio, etc vern que junto al sello que marca su ingreso a los Estados Unidos se escriben las letras D/S. Y significa que se puede permanecer en el paà ­s mientras sigue en activo el programa en el que se participa. El tema de cunto se puede permanecer legalmente es fundamental. Ya que no entenderlo puede crear problemas migratorios muy serios. Por ello es importante entender  los tiempos y los periodos de gracia, segà ºn el tipo de visa. Tambià ©n es importante conocer cules son las consecuencias de no respetar los là ­mites de permanencia legal y, en el caso de los turistas, con cunta frecuencia se puede ingresar sin arriesgarse a ser parado en las aduanas y enviado de vuelta al paà ­s de origen. La visa sin expirar,  ¿garantiza el ingreso a Estados Unidos? No, la visa sin expirar es solo uno de los requisitos para solicitar con à ©xito en ingreso a Estados Unidos una vez que se llega a uno de sus puertos de entrada (aeropuerto, puerto o frontera terrestre). Las à ºnicas excepciones a la necesidad de presentar una visa sin vencimiento son: ciudadanos americanosresidentes permanentes legales, que deben presentar la green card y sus pasaportesturistas y personas de negocios de un paà ­s del Programa de Exencià ³n de VisasY personas en situaciones excepcionales a los que se le concede el ingreso sin visa, lo que se conoce como parole, como por ejemplos las personas que pueden solicitar asilo y el oficial de migracià ³n cree que hay una razà ³n mà ­nima para creerle y que el proceso sobre si se le concede o no se decida ms tarde, ya en Estados Unidos. Todos los extranjeros que no se encuentran en las situaciones mencionadas necesitan una visa sin expirar y, adems, que: no sean inelegibles, en el caso de visas temporales y personas en el Programa de exencià ³n de visadosno sean inadmisibles, aplicando esto incluso a los residentesque la visa no haya sido cancelada o revocaday que el ingreso a los Estados Unidos se busque para el fin especà ­fico de la visa. Este à ºltimo punto es muy importante porque puede dar lugar a muchos problemas. Por ejemplo, si se pretende ingresar con una visa de turista pero la intencià ³n es casarse. Otro ejemplo, es cuando se viene a estudiar con visa de turista o se sospecha que se viene a trabajar sin visa de ese tipo. Corresponde al oficial migratorio decidir si permite a un extranjero la entrada o, por el contrario, si lo envà ­a de regreso a su lugar de procedencia. En el puesto fronterizo pueden suceder distintas situaciones. Es importante entender cul realmente tuvo lugar para intentar luego resolver el problema. Por ejemplo, no es lo mismo una expulsià ³n inmediata que una situacià ³n de I-275. Visa expirada pero estancia legal o no problemtica Esto es posible en diferentes situaciones. Por ejemplo, para el caso de los turistas si la fecha de vencimiento del visa llega antes que el dà ­a seà ±alado en el I-94. Por ejemplo, si la fecha de expiracià ³n de la visa era el 24 de septiembre de 2011, pero el I-94 seà ±alaba como fecha mxima de duracià ³n de la estancia como el 24 de noviembre de 2011, se ha estado en situacià ³n regular hasta ese à ºltimo dà ­a. Incluso si tanto la fecha de expiracià ³n de la visa americana como la del I-94 ya han vencido es posible conservar el estatus migratorio legal siempre y cuando antes de su vencimiento se haya pedido una extensià ³n de la visa a tiempo y de buena fe e Inmigracià ³n la apruebe. Si bien si finalmente no se aprueba la extensià ³n hay que salir inmediatamente de EEUU y puede haber problemas precisamente por haber estado irregularmente. Esto tambià ©n ocurre en caso en los que se solicita un cambio de visa siguiendo todos los requisitos.     Por à ºltimo, otro ejemplo de visa expirada pero estancia no problemtica es en los casos de ajuste de estatus (como por ejemplo, en los casos de matrimonio con un ciudadano estadounidense). En estos casos tener muy en cuenta que si se quiere salir de los Estados Unidos mientras se est tramitando el ajuste es necesario pedir un advance parole. El no pedirlo puede dar lugar a problemas como que no permitan el regreso a Estados Unidos mientras no finalizan todos los trmites. Visa no expirada pero estancia irregular Por el contrario, es posible estar en situacià ³n irregular en Estados Unidos (lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como out of status) aunque la visa tenga una fecha de expiracià ³n que todavà ­a no haya llegado. Por ejemplo; si la fecha I-94 llega antes que la de la expiracià ³n de la visa, se debe salir del paà ­s cuando lo dice el I-94 y no la visa. Sà ³lo en casos excepcionales se permite restaurar el estatus.cuando se violan las condiciones del visado. Por ejemplo, un estudiante con visa F-1 que deja de acudir a clases por varios meses est invalidando, con su conducta, su visado. Estas son las violaciones migratorias por las que se puede producir una deportacià ³n o una expulsià ³n.O si tienes una visa de trabajo temporal y eres despedido. Debes abandonar Estados Unidos en el plazo seà ±alado para cada tipo de visa, pero es incorrecto pensar que puede permanecer en EEUU porque la fecha de expiracià ³n de su visado queda a varios meses, o aà ±os, vista. Pasaporte vencido, visa sin expirar Puede suceder que la fecha de vencimiento del pasaporte sea anterior a la del visado. En este casos no se debe solicitar una nueva. Simplemente viajar a los Estados Unidos con los dos pasaportes: el nuevo sin expirar y el viejo expirado donde est la visa, que todavà ­a tiene fecha vlida. Al llegar al punto de control migratorio mostrar los dos pasaportes. El oficial de Inmigracià ³n escribir las letras VIOPP junto al sello que marca el ingreso al paà ­s. Son las iniciales en inglà ©s de la frase Visa in other passport. Lo que nunca debe hacerse es arrancar la visa del pasaporte expirado e intentar pegarla en el nuevo. Esto produce siempre la anulacià ³n de la visa y no ser posible utilizarla. Necesario solicitar nueva visa aunque actual no est expirada Un caso completamente distinto al anterior es cuando se extravà ­a un pasaporte con una visa americana o cuando à ©ste es robado. En estos supuestos es importante seguir el procedimiento adecuado para reportar el hecho y sacar una nueva visa. Tambià ©n se tiene que solicitar de nuevo la visa en los casos en los que, por la razà ³n que sea, à ©sta se daà ±a, mutila, etc. El caso especial de la revalidacià ³n automtica de la visa En casos muy concretos, es posible viajar al extranjero con la visa expirada y volver a entrar en EEUU, lo cual es contrario a la regla general de funcionamiento de los visados. Es lo que se conoce como revalidacià ³n automtica de las visas, pero est sujeto a condiciones muy especà ­ficas: Tener una visa no inmigrante que ha expiradovisitar desde EE.UU. Canad, Mà ©xico o islas adyacentes, como por ejemplo, Bahamasvisita en esos paà ­ses inferior a 30 dà ­asTener un I-94 vlido, registro de entrada y de salida Deben darse TODOS los requisitos. Consejos a tener en cuenta Millones de extranjeros ingresan cada aà ±o a Estados Unidos por los puertos de entrada al paà ­s. La inmensa mayorà ­a no tiene problemas o son mà ­nimos, como por ejemplo, tener que pasar por una segunda inspeccià ³n. Para evitar problemas es importante respetar siempre las leyes del paà ­s, como por ejemplo pagar las multas de trnsito, conocer los aspectos fundamentales de la visa que se tiene, tener en cuenta que las aduanas de los Estados Unidos tienen un sistema muy completo de informacià ³n y que mentir aun oficial migratorio es un fraude de ley, lo cual puede tener consecuencias serias. Por à ºltimo, antes de poner en peligro la visa es altamente recomendable consultar con un abogado.   Adquirir conocimientos bsicos con test Se recomienda tomar este test de respuestas mà ºltiples o quiz de visa de turista. Son 19 preguntas. Conocer las respuestas sirve para evitar problemas y malentendidos a la hora de solicitar la visa, conservarla y renovarla. Muchos de los problemas tienen su origen en la ignorancia. Y à ©sta se vence con conocimiento. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal para ningà ºn caso concreto.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Review of Literature on Multicultural Literarture Dissertation

Review of Literature on Multicultural Literarture - Dissertation Example A very good introduction to the issues involved in multicultural literacy is provided by Carol D. Lee in her book Culture, Literacy and Learning: Taking Blook in the Whirlwind (Lee, 2007). The second part of the title is taken from a poem by Gwendolyn Brooks which advocates living and flourishing in a maelstrom of contradictory forces and this metaphor is used to illuminate the many pressures that children in some ethnic groups, and especially African Americans, experience when they are growing up. Lee argues for definitions that go beyond simple categorizations: â€Å"To analyse group membership in ways that take history and cultural practices into account, ethnicity is a more powerful and universal concept than race. Ethnicity takes into account history, identity, practices and beliefs.† (Lee, 2007, 11) This implies that educators must have a deep knowledge of their subject but also of the routine practices that go on outside the school gates, in families and among peer grou ps. If the experiences that the learner has in school are unrelated to the outside experiences, then many opportunities for learning are lost. Prior knowledge cannot be tapped into, and students are likely to have poor recollection of what they learn, and be unable to apply it in any realistic context. There is also likely to be a lack of motivation because the relevance of school learning is will be perceived as low. This means that a fundamental task of the teacher is to make sure that there is overlap between the world outside and the world of classroom learning. Programs like â€Å"Funds of knowledge† which bring in a diverse range of adults from the community, or the â€Å"Cultural Modeling Framework† which adds a focus on youth behaviour and â€Å"the very different demands of subject matter learning.† (Lee, 2007,11) Lee homes in on the type of assessments used, and describes interventions in a school with a high proportion of African American learners. Fa ctors like time limiting reading tasks are found to be counter-productive, and exercises such as reading and then talking are suggested as a better way of establishing how the reader engages with a text and makes sense of it than formal writing. Dialogue with the teacher is important, in order to bridge the gap between everyday language and reasoning, and the styles and standards expected in the academic setting. The book concludes that â€Å"displays of competence depend a lot on how competence is both defined and assessed †¦ we privilege particular kinds of displays as evidence of processes of internalization†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The implications of these insights for literacy are that teachers must seek a variety of ways of linking academic reasoning with everyday experiences, and must appreciate different learner styles, for example valuing the quiet learner who may be â€Å"inwardly attentive in ways that are difficult to assess.† (Lee, 2007, 174) Flores-Duenas (2004) dis cusses similar issues and presents a case study of four Latina(o) students illustrating the need to provide reading materials and discussion opportunities which validate the experience of a wide range of students and not just white European American students. The article is prefaced with a very interesting first person narrative

Friday, October 18, 2019

PR Planning and Strategy (Blogger Relations) Article

PR Planning and Strategy (Blogger Relations) - Article Example However, the turbines occupy a small land, thus the rest of the land can be utilized for agriculture. This makes this source of energy the most appropriate for farming regions. This implies that land value is increased through these dual uses. However, there can be conflicts in land usage, which can arise from the clearing of trees in water catchment areas. Moreover, many people argue that their presence reduces the value of properties. Black (2006, p. 37) argues that the turbines have rotors which kill birds, especially the eagles, when they are spinning. Electric current generated also kills these birds. Strategic planning can be done in order to eliminate the shortfalls of this source of energy. In addition, the wind industry has to liaise with the environmental organizations to resolve some of these problems. In order to avert the problems associated with global warming fossil fuels, Alternative energy simulation PLC must maintain the production of wind energy at Bidston Hill, Wirral Liverpool. These sources of energy include wind, biomass, and sunlight. Technologies associated with energy are not satisfactory in their applications, thus, there are environmental aspects, which need to be addressed with regard to these energies. The community must embrace this new technology because the government has provided renewable energy subsidies. The community should take advantage of this provision in order to benefit from the subsidies. The high unemployment rate in North Wirral will be resolved because the establishment of wind energy generation in this site will definitely provide the unemployed people with jobs (Brower, 46, 2009). The contract for the installation of turbines and the general development of the infrastructure of this energy investment will provide job opportunities for the local people in Wirral. Consequently, this will boost the livelihood of people at North Wirral. According to Westra (2008, p. 24), the use of wind energy is

Network Security and the Demilitarized Zone Coursework

Network Security and the Demilitarized Zone - Coursework Example The researcher states that the disadvantages associated with DMZ are not significant, but one issue can be highlighted, as the segregation may create a hassle for the network administration because DMZ requires frequent updates and maintenance. Moreover, the hardware cost is high and requires dedicated hardware in order to implement DMZ within the network. Deployment includes a switch, separate firewall, and IDS etc. The most significant advantage that is shared by both of these technologies is communication. However, intranet provides limited communication as compared to the extranet, but it is still effective. In order to implement the intranet, local area network and a host is required. The network must adhere to the requirements of the intranet application. Moreover, the application will be deployed on a separate workstation called as a host or server. The star topology is recommended for intranet-based networks as the network administrator can manage and administer intranet issu es in a centralized environment. Furthermore, the presence of the intranet will enable new trends for communication. For example, paperless communication between employees, chatting, e-mails and blogs etc. disadvantage includes maintenance and security issues. Hardware requirements for an extranet are similar, except Extranet provides a wide coverage for employees, who want to work from home, or communicate while traveling. However, in order to provide or publish contents on the Internet, certain advanced protocols are required. For instance, VPN is a secure choice. Accordingly, due to its broad functionality, security issues are also more as compared to the intranet. Network address translation is defined as â€Å"An Internet protocol that allows individual sites to support more IP hosts than the number of IP addresses assigned to it. This is done using special Internet addresses that have been reserved for this purpose. These special addresses are invalid on the Internet itself. The hosts using these addresses may communicate among themselves, but they cannot access the Internet directly† (Campus infrastructure guidelines). NAT translates private IP addresses into global IP addresses, making it simple for the network administrator, as incremental changes are required without modifying host and routers. Moreover, the disadvantage NAT has is that it is slow because each packet is processed, prior to the decision of translating it or not. ‘IP traceability’ also becomes difficult as data packets are difficult to trace.   Tunneling is also called as port forwarding. Port forwarding is configured for a secure channel within the medium or corporate networks. One way of implementing a tunneling protocol is to configure a DSL modem by defining the port number that is allocated for using specific service. For instance, in order to access remote desktop via port forwarding, port number 3389 and RDP service is defined in the router against the IP a ddress of the workstation on which the service needs to be executed. A popular tunneling protocol developed by Microsoft is known as Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP).

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Marginalists Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Marginalists - Term Paper Example This means that excess demand or supply in one market would be offset by another in a different market. The same phenomenon holds for the state of disequilibrium such that all markets exist at disequilibrium simultaneously. In his approach of returns to scale, Marshall noted that a firm’s productivity increase more proportionately in the short run. This occurs because of effects of specialization of labor and existence of fixed costs. In the long run, a firm experiences a proportionate increase in productivity since the fixed costs are exhausted and that the firm can no longer benefit from specialization (Canterbery 135). It is vital to note that when a firm is harnessing economies of scale, it reaches its minimum effect scale at a level that other firms cannot harness over a short period thereby causing monopoly. Clark’s arguments rest on the productive capacity of the last unit of capital. In this sense, heterogonous capital goods have a form as homogenous goods (Canterbery 127). The productivity of the last homogenous quantity determines the profit. This differed from the Karl’s view of heterogonous goods as determination of profits. The criticism of this theory regards the fact that Clark present production units as abstract concepts that do not unify to influence

Isaac Newton Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Isaac Newton - Research Paper Example Although Newton was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome by his school psychologist, he constantly achieved the title of top student in the school. Newton was interested in the works of great philosophers and mathematicians, and he discovered the generalized binomial theorem when he was studying in the Trinity College. Between the period 1665 and 1667, Newton made some of his prominent achievements such as the development of calculus, the law of gravitation, and theories on optics. Newton died on 20th March 1727. Although Newton developed a range of theories in mathematics and science, his greatest four achievements include the study of light, discovery of the binomial theorem, discovery of calculus, and the development of the theory of universal gravitation. As Levin says, when Newton discovered that white light is made up of a spectrum of colors from his crystal prism experiments, it brought an end to the debate that whether or not color was an intrinsic property of light (39)i. In addition, Newton’s great works on refraction led to the development of first practical reflecting telescopes, which is known as Newtonian Telescope today. When scientists of Newton’s time supported the idea of ‘light as a wave’, Newton suggested light was made up of particles but not waves. Today, it is clear that light exists as both waves and particles. Binomial theorem was one of the greatest contributions of Isaac Newton to the field of mathematics. The binomial theorem has a range of applications such as multiple-angle identities, series for e, derivative of the power function, and nth derivative of a product. The discovery of calculus was another significant achievement of Newton in mathematics. According to the Oxford Dictionary of English, calculus is defined as â€Å"the branch of mathematics that deals with the finding and properties of derivatives and integrals of functions, by methods originally based on the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Marginalists Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Marginalists - Term Paper Example This means that excess demand or supply in one market would be offset by another in a different market. The same phenomenon holds for the state of disequilibrium such that all markets exist at disequilibrium simultaneously. In his approach of returns to scale, Marshall noted that a firm’s productivity increase more proportionately in the short run. This occurs because of effects of specialization of labor and existence of fixed costs. In the long run, a firm experiences a proportionate increase in productivity since the fixed costs are exhausted and that the firm can no longer benefit from specialization (Canterbery 135). It is vital to note that when a firm is harnessing economies of scale, it reaches its minimum effect scale at a level that other firms cannot harness over a short period thereby causing monopoly. Clark’s arguments rest on the productive capacity of the last unit of capital. In this sense, heterogonous capital goods have a form as homogenous goods (Canterbery 127). The productivity of the last homogenous quantity determines the profit. This differed from the Karl’s view of heterogonous goods as determination of profits. The criticism of this theory regards the fact that Clark present production units as abstract concepts that do not unify to influence

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Crime control strategies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Crime control strategies - Essay Example In the current justice system, leverage can prevent an individual from going to prison. The penalty system is one of the major flaws with the current justice system. Criminals’ abilities to meet their penalties instead of serving time in prison places people with the capacity to pay at a much added advantage as compared to the poor individuals in the society (Hartley 2008). As such, rich people can just pay for their crimes, with the money that they already have in excess instead of doing hard time. Secondly, considering law as one of the highest grossing occupations, most reputable lawyers are only affordable to rich people. The poor and middle class population is then left with the inadequately reputable lawyers who, despite their efforts will never get a deal as appropriate for their clients as the exceptional highly paid lawyers always do (Hartley 2008). The unfairness exhibited by the justice system has led to protests in the contemporary society, with more people demanding the equitability of crime punishment despite the ability of lawyers to get their clients off their punishment course, or the fines that substitute punishment and predetermined courses of action with a few dollars from their bank account. This is ironic because this system brings equality to the society, justice, only further oppresses the already oppressed individuals

The Byzantine Empire Essay Example for Free

The Byzantine Empire Essay When the western Roman Empire descended into chaos in 500 C.E. much of the Roman culture on the west side was lost, while the Eastern empire survived and preserved much of the surviving Roman Culture, but changed it’s name to the â€Å"Byzantine Empire,† showing individuality in many aspects between Rome and Byzantine. The Byzantine Empire was the surviving reminisces of the Roman Empire, which flourished into the oldest and longest lasting empire in our history. It began with the emperor Constantine who based much of the Byzantine Empire social structure of Rome. For example, the romans had two distinct classes, the Patricians and the Plebeians, the poor and the elite. The Byzantines had the poors and the Vassals. Although there was a severe gap between the social classes, the Byzantines had something called a Pepacy or the office of the people. â€Å"The laws of every people governed by statutes and customs are partly peculiar to itself, partly common to all mankind†¦..† This shows that although it continued on the Greek style of democracy, it incorporated its own laws and writings in it (Document 1 and Document 4) When the Western Roman Empire crumbled down, many people don’t know the extent of the damage the Western Empire endured. â€Å"And having a mind set upon evil, they took in hand unlawful deeds, thinking to suppress altogether the depicting of the venerable images.† This displays the chaos and anarchy roaming in Western Rome. And when the Byzantine Empire came about, it was the nail in the coffin, marking the decline of the Roman Empire (Document 3) Originally Roman religion worshipped the emperor as a god, a single deity, however that all changed when Constantine came into power. He quickly established the Byzantine capital as Constantinople, and made Christianity as the national religion. This marked the start of Christian ascendancy, which quickly globalized Western Europe. â€Å"We should be the slaves, not the sons of such as Church, and the Roman See would not be the pious mother of sons but a hard and imperious mistress of slaves.† The following quote depicts many citizens against and the Christian way of life, which eventually switched over to Islam and Constantinople was renamed to modern day â€Å"Istanbul.† (Document 2 and Document 5) If given a bonus document it would explain how people lived day in and day out living in the Byzantine Empire. Because it will explain how much of their daily lives are parallel to that of the ancient Romans.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Examining The Bromination And Debromination Of Cholesterol Biology Essay

Examining The Bromination And Debromination Of Cholesterol Biology Essay Bromination/debromination which is an important organic reaction that aims in purification of crude cholesterol from impurities which include 3-cholestanol, 7-cholesten-3-ol, and 5,7-chlestadien-3-ol was performed in a laboratory scale for two weeks. Due to steric constraints, only cholesterol reacted with bromine and crystallized from the solution making it possible to be separated (Feiser, and Williamson 63). The dibromocholesterol formed is regenerated by reacting with Zinc dust. In addition, three methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness. These were Sodium Iodide test, Silver Nitrate test, and Sulfuric acid test. NaI test showed a positive response as color changed to yellow. The formation of the precipitate also indicated a positive result. The sodium iodide reagent reacted with 1 ° and 2 ° alkyl halides through an SN2 mechanism.  On the other hand, the silver nitrate reagent reacted with 2o and 3 ° alkyl halides through an SN1 mechanism.   Negative results were observed for both the commercial cholesterol and 1-chlorobutane (Zubrick 38). Conversely, the t-butyl chloride gave a positive result for the AgNO3  test and a negative result for the NaI test. The synthesized cholesterol was 0.29 gram and the theoretical yield was 1.08 gram. This gave a percent yield of 26.9 gram. Although this was a low yield the TLC analysis confirmed a high purity of the synthesized cholesterol. The melting point of the synthesized cholesterol and commercial cholesterol seems to fall in the same range. This confirms the purity of the synthesized cholesterol. TLC analysis was carried out to confirm the purity of the analysis. The distance traveled by commercial cholesterol was 5.5 whereas that travelled by the synthesized cholesterol was 4.6. The absence of other spots on the TLC plate confirms that there were no contaminations present in the sample. Introduction Cholesterol is an important steroidal compound found in both animals and plants. Despite the fact that cholesterol causes diseases, it plays a vital role in life. For example, cholesterol is the main structural component in cell walls and in myelin sheath formation. It is also a major precursor for most steroid hormones. Crude cholesterol is isolated from natural sources and various methods have been used in its purification. Crude cholesterol contains approximately 3-5% contamination. Some of the contaminants are 3-cholestanol, 7-cholesten-3-ol, and 5,7-chlestadien-3-ol shown below. Figure 2: Some common contaminants of commercial cholesterol The main objective of this experiment was to purify commercial cholesterol using organic reaction chemistry, including the use of the electrophilic addition. For complete purification of cholesterol from the above impurities is achieved by a reaction of bromine with cholesterol to generate dibromocholesterol. Because of the steroid ring structure present in these compounds that causes steric constraints, only cholesterol reacts with bromine to form an insoluble diaxial dibromo compound through electrophilic addition. On the other hand, cholestanal does not react with bromine and the other two contaminants are dehydrogenated by bromine leading to formation of soluble dienes and trienes respectively. The dibromo-cholesterol precipitates as a solid leaving the other impurities in the reaction solvent. A purification step such as solvent washing or crystallization is carried out to separate the solid from the impurities. The so lid dibromo-cholesterol is then reacted with zinc in order to regenerate pure cholesterol. Figure 1: Reaction Scheme for the Bromination/Debromination of Cholesterol To test the effectiveness of this reaction three different chemical tests namely sodium iodide in acetone, silver nitrate in ethanol test, and sulfuric acid test, were performed. Each of these tests is selective for a specific functional group. Dibromocholesterol contains both primary and secondary alkyl halides and reacts with a sodium iodide in acetone and silver nitrate in ethanol to form a precipitate or a cloudy solution. In addition, the presence of double bonds in dibromocholesterol in form of alkene makes it possible for the formation of a fluorescent green sulfuric acid layer and a red chloroform layer when reacted with sulfuric acid (Landgrebe 78). Material and Methods 1g of commercial cholesterol was added to a 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask. 7 mL t-butylmethyl ether was measured with a graduated cylinder and added to the flask containing the cholesterol and a magnetic stir bar. A water bath was then set up on the hotplate in the hood. The Erlenmeyer flask contain the reaction solution was inserted into the water bath and clamped as shown below. The heat and the stirrer were turned on and gently heat until all the cholesterol dissolved in t-butylmethyl ether. Figure 3:   Set-up for bromination reaction (Note: the actual reaction mixture is not blue) The flask was removed from the water bath after all the cholesterol was completely dissolved and allowed to cool to room temperature. After the cholesterol solution was cooled, the flask was clamped to the ring on the hot plate as shown in figure 4 and stirred without heating. A burette was then used to dispense 5 mL of bromine solution into the flask. A precipitate solution formed almost immediately. Figure 4:   Set-up for the Addition of Bromine The water bath was replaced with ice and tap water and the reaction solution stirred intermittently with a glass stir rod for ~ 10 minutes to complete the crystallization of the product. About 20 mL of the t-butylmethyl ether acetic acid solution was then dispensed in a clean 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask which was clamped to a ring stand and allowed to cool in the ice bath. A vacuum filtration was done using a Buchner funnel and filter paper. The solid in the filter was washed using ~10 mL of the cooled solution of t-butylmethyl ether acetic acid and then with ~10 ml of methanol. The solid was then allowed to dry with the vacuum on for about 5 minutes. the dibromocholesterol melting point was measured and recorded. The dry solid was weighted and sealed in a vial and stored for next experiment. To debrominate cholesterol, 20 mL of t-butylmethyl ether, 5 mL of acetic acid and 0.2 g of Zn dust were added into the Erlenmeyer flask containing the dibromocholesterol solid. The mixture was swir led for 5-10 minutes in the hood and sonicated in 5 minutes to allow the reaction to go completion. After sonication the solids present were removed by gravity filtration method into a clean 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. The filtrate was transferred to a 125 mL separatoryHYPERLINK http://community.acphs.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/Arts%20and%20Sci/Courses/CHE211/Common/lab/Organic-sde/BP-Dist/BP_General.html funnel in which 20 mL of deionized water was added, shaken and allowed to separate into layers. The two layers formed were then separated as water layers and organic (ether) layers. The ether layer was washed with 20 mL of 10% NaOH and then 20 mL of saturated NaCl solution. 100mg of the drying agent magnesium sulfate was added to the organic layer and the solution swirled until dry. The drying agent was removed by gravity filtration using a glass funnel fluted filter paper and a very dry 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask. The flask was placed in a warm water bath and then ice cooled for 10 minut es until all but 5 mL of the ether remained following a precipitate formation from the solution. The remaining solvent was decanted and the synthesized cholesterol transferred and allowed to dry in the hood for 20 minutes.The dry solid was weighed and the weight recorded. In addition the melting point was also taken and recorded. To evaluate the effectiveness of the bromination reaction three chemical reactions mentioned above were carried out. NaI in acetone test Five test tubes labeled A, B, C, D and E were used for this test.   About 30 mg of the commercial cholesterol starting material was added to tube A; ~30 mg of dibromocholesterol to tube B; ~30 mg of the synthesized cholesterol product to tube C; ~0.3 mL of 1-chlorobutane to tube D; and ~ 0.3 mL of t-butyl chloride to tube E.   In addition, about 3 mL of acetone was added to each tube to completely dissolve all the compounds.   Solutions A-E was used to do the NaI in acetone test as well as the AgNO3 in ethanol test. Tubes A-C did the TLC as well. The NaI in Acetone and AgNO3 in Ethanol tests were performed by setting up a test tube rack containing ten small test tubes. The test tubes were labeled N1 N5 and A1 A5. 1 mL of NaI in acetone reagent was added to test tubes N1 N5, and 1 mL of AgNO3 in ethanol reagent to test tubes A1 A5. This was followed by adding 5-8 drops of A solution to test tube N1 and tube A1, 5-8 drops of solution B to test tube N2 and tube A2, 5-8 drops of solution C to to test tube N3 and tube A3, 5-8 drops of solution C to test tube N4 and tube A4, and 5-8 drops of solution C to test tube N5 and tube A5. The test tubes were heated for a while and all the observations recorded. The sulfuric acid for alkenes test was performed by additional solutions of cholesterol and dibromocholesterol with five dry-cleaned test tubes 1-5. 10 mg of commercial cholesterol was placed in tube 1, ~10mg of the dibromocholesterol to tube 2 ~10 mg of your synthesized cholesterol to tube 3, ~10 mg of 2-chlorobutane to tube 4, and 10 mg of cyclohexene to tube 5.  About 1 mL of chloroform (CHCl3) was added to each tube and vortex to completely dissolve all solids.   In addition, 0.5 mL of H2SO4 was then added to each tube. The observation for this reaction was recorded in the notebook. The TLC analysis of cholesterol and dibromocholesterol was performed by obtaining a silica gel TLC plate and setting it up to run TLC analysis on solutions A-C above. The plate was spotted with each solution and developed by placing the plate using 30% ethyl acetate: 70% hexane as the mobile phase. The developed plates were viewed under UV lamp and in the I2 chamber and observations recorded. Results Table 1 Percent Yield of synthesized cholesterol Actual Yield 0.29g Theoretical Yield 1.08g Percent Yield 26.9% Mass of Synthesized Dibromocholesterol was 1.57g Table 2 Melting Point Test Compound Temperature  °C Commercial Cholesterol 144.6-150.3 Dibromochesterol 105-109 Synthesized Cholesterol 147 Table 3 Sodium Iodide test Compound Time Vortex Temp First Sign of Reaction Com. Cholesterol None Dibromocholesterol + Yellow Synthesized Cholesterol + Chunky Yellow 1-Chlorobutane + Yellow Tert-Butyl Chloride + Cloudy Table 4 Silver Nitrate test Compound Time Vortex Temp First Sign of Reaction Com. Cholesterol None Dibromocholesterol + Cloudy Synthesized Cholesterol + Cloudy Yellow 1-Chlorobutane None Tert-Butyl Chloride + Cloudy Table 5: Sulfuric Acid Test Compound Time Vortex Temp First Sign of Reaction Com. Cholesterol + Color Dibromocholesterol + Color Synthesized Cholesterol + Color 1-Bromobutane None Tert-Butyl Chloride + Color Table 6: Thin Layer Chromatography: In 30% Ethyl Acetate/70% Hexane Commercial Cholesterol 5.5 1.0 5.5 Dibromocholesterol 4 0.73 5.5 Synthesized Cholesterol 4.6 0.84 5.5 Discussion The yield of the synthesized cholesterol was .29 grams (Table 1). The theoretical yield was 1.08 grams. The actual yield was calculated by taking the difference of the weight of the round bottom flask and the synthesized cholesterol by the synthesized cholesterols weight alone. The percent yield was calculated to be 26.9 percent. The synthesize process was not efficient due to the low yield and percent yield of the synthesized cholesterol. The melting point of the synthesized cholesterol and commercial cholesterol seems to fall in the same range. This confirms the purity of the synthesized cholesterol. NaI test showed a positive response as color changed to yellow. The formation of the precipitate also indicated a positive result. The sodium iodide reagent reacted with 1 ° and 2 ° alkyl halides through an SN2 mechanism.  On the other hand, the silver nitrate reagent reacted with 2o and 3 ° alkyl halides through an SN1 mechanism.   Negative results were observed for both the commercial cholesterol and 1-chlorobutane. Conversely, the t-butyl chloride gave a positive result for the AgNO3  test and a negative result for the NaI test. The stationary phase of the TLC test was the silica gel TLC plate and the mobile phase was 30% Ethyl Acetate/70% Hexane (Table 6). The distance traveled by commercial cholesterol was 5.5, and for the synthesized cholesterol was 4.6. The difference in the distance traveled and the R f values of the samples commercial and synthesized cholesterol were pure. Since there were no other spots visible on the TLC plate was a clear indication that there were no contaminations of other chemical compounds present in the sample.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Investment Management Training :: essays research papers

Is There a Return on the Investment of Management Training?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Customer satisfaction is no doubt dependent on a great number of variables. While it may be difficult to measure the actual benefits of training in terms of customer satisfaction, it appears essential to provide some type of training for employees to improve job performance. According to Smith (2001), staffs who have received formal training have been found to be up to 230 percent more productive than untrained colleagues working in the same role. Therefore, it becomes clear that the development of an organization’s human resources is a high priority for today’s business leaders.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Preparation of staff should be well-planned and supportive of the company’s goals. Successful companies build a consistent system with clear constraints, allowing employees some freedom accompanied with responsibility (Collins, 2001). Managers simply cannot rely on their employees coming in with all the necessary skills to be successful in their positions. Some may require more computer skills, while others need receptionist or time management skills. Individual needs should drive the training program and this is not always an easy task to accomplish. A one-size-fits-all approach to management training will most likely not be highly successful.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Larry Seldon, a Columbia University professor, stresses that â€Å"different customers have different customs, different values, different psyches and different needs.† (CNNMONEY, 2004) Each employee’s needs may be as individual as their customers’ needs. When dealing with human emotions and performance, the results are not always predictable or certain. A recent University of Michigan study revealed that customer satisfaction has declined about three percent over the last five years (CNNMoney, 2004). Good managers recognize that customer service and satisfaction are key elements to be successful in the business world. Training is one of the primary ways to increase employee skills and productivity. Employees need to be well-trained in current job skills, and learn new skills on a continuing basis in order to remain competitive (Fernald & Solomon, 1998). Employers need to provide ample opportunities for employees to develop their abilities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A new method of providing this training is through the use of the Internet. Rural communities with small businesses do not have the resources available to provide ongoing, systematic training programs for their employees. William Shuffstall, County senior extension agent, maintains that small businesses need to stay viable because their communities depend on them to keep the local economy alive (Burlingame, 2002). The effective use of technology can assist these small businesses with effective and current training strategies.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Volkswagen of America: Managing It Priorities

Matulovic who is the chief information officer of Volkswagen of America (VWoA) has a tough decision to make. Volkswagen’s subsidiary launched a new process for allocating budgets across the business. With the new process, they have derived at a list of approved projects that no one is happy about. Calls came flooding through to Matulovic with an informal request to insert an unfunded project into the IT department’s work plans. VWoA had projects requiring $210 millions and the parent company of VWoA (Volkswagen Group, VWAG) budgeted only $60 million. In choosing the right projects to fund was a process that consisted of three phases: Phase 1-Calling for projects, communicating process, and identifying dependencies, Phase 2-Formal project requests for business unit, and Phase 3-Transforming business unit request into enterprise goal portfolios. Phase I was able to reduce and re-categorize projects because business units realized that many of their initiatives were very similar to other initiatives throughout the company which lead projects to become grouped together into common enterprise projects. This phase identified dependencies among projects. Therefore, without completed projects, the other projects could not be started. This phase also involved members becoming exposed to information about proposed initiatives across the company which gave them a greater understanding and appreciation of different business units. This helps migrate away from the current silo thinking and start focusing on initiatives in an enterprise-wide level. At the end of this phase, the proposed $210 million was simplified to a list of projects that required $170 million. Phase 1 was a critical starting point in aligning all business initiatives and trimming down projects. With the list in hand, we now step into Phase 2. During Phase 2 each business unit was required to classify each proposal into the type of investment (stay in business, return on investment, and option-creating investment) and technological application type (base-enterprise IT platform, enterprise applications, and customized point solutions). These classifications would influence how particular investments would be treated in the selection and prioritization process. Business units had to rank projects by priority and associate projects with enterprise goals. There was criticism that projects were reclassified as enterprise, but they really weren’t enterprise projects. The is because business units had to think of ways to associate their project with enterprise goals to improve chances of funding since the stay in business projects were given high priority, then the enterprise projects and finally individual business units. So if your project wasn’t a stay in business or enterprise project then the business units were tempted to reclassify their project to an enterprise project instead of a business unit. This built frustration as managers are looking for their own funding but don’t have the overall view to properly prioritize which lead other projects get the funding. Finally, Phase 3 consisted of ranking business unit goals based upon enterprise goals/needs. The key concept of governance is to align organizational activity with corporate goals and strategy. The assessment of the new process is to align business goals with enterprise goals and fund the top priority projects that would support the next round of growth goal areas. The NRG program is the readiness program called â€Å"Next Round of Growth† it was aimed to define the goals, functions, and organizational changes required to support and enable the new global product diversification strategy. The Next Round of Growth Enterprise Goal Areas is to support expanded product portfolio which is customer loyalty, new vehicle value, pre-owned vehicle business, stable infrastructure, and optimize supply flow. In order to reach a final project list, VWoA had to simplify and categorize projects, assess their business impact, and distinguish their alignment with goals all while making trade-off decisions. The process is an improvement over the old process since the business units were required to prioritize based on the enterprise-wide goals instead of their own business unit. It also avoided the less organized and less centralized method in prioritizing projects. The new process led business units to work together and make decisions that would affect their unit using the overall company strategy. They would also recognize other business unit’s priorities and provide a greater appreciation of their business unit and the work that they do. This helps alleviate other business units ranking their initiatives as more important than another. As this being a new process at VWoA, this process failed to capture and fund the supply flow project. The unfunded supply flow project revealed a flaw in the new process system. The supply flow project did not get funding because it was recognized at the global level and not at the VWoA importer level. The loss of funding would constitute a major setback for globalization initiatives based in Germany so this particular project must be funded somehow and Matulovic had to think of options on how to make this happen. The recommendation at this point is to remain focus on the most important strategic goals of VWoA and proceed funding all projects in the final project list in the top-ranked portfolio. He should not take funding from other funded projects to try and help fund the supply flow project. That would lead to intense push back and affect working relationships since projects which are important to VWoA’s strategic goals will be neglected. He should also not leave it to the supply flow area to work out what to do about this project because that decision would lead to a project waiting to fail. Dumping a project on them to figure out, without the proper resources is nearly impossible to successfully complete. Re-opening the new prioritization process that took nearly 3 months to complete is unnecessary and wasted time. The process will not have to be reopened, rather to find alternative sources for funding to proceed with the supply flow project. Due to the global reach of the project, it is unreasonable for the project to be funded solely by VWoA, but rather allocating the funds under the parent company or among all companies under the umbrella of the parent company, Volkswagen Group. Volkswagen Group sets the budget at VWoA and several organizational entities at VWoA would play a role in controlling which projects are funded. There are four specific teams involved in this process: the ELT (Executive Leadership Team), the ITSC (IT Steering Committee), the PMO (Project Management Office), and the DBC (Digital Business Council). If they are unable to find alternative funding then they should consider this project as an exception or special condition to figure out a way to fund the project. This is common where successful businesses continuously create new opportunities which cannot be covered by existing IT decisions. Matulovic should reach out to the supply flow group in Germany to present and communicate the different options for alternative funding and the importance of funding the top-ranked portfolio and the supply flow project and get them involved in the solution process. In managing IT priorities in the future, there needs to be a change in the new process to include support and recognize the global level projects and not just at the VWoA level. This ensures other vital projects don’t fall through the cracks like the supply flow project in this case study. The Volkswagen Group should reevaluate that proper funding is allocated for both the VWoA and global level initiatives. Matulovic’s fellow executives that communicated the concern of unfunded projects were involved in the decision making process and if they thought these goals didn’t align with the company’s goals, then they should have voiced their concerns to the process teams, ELT,ITSC, PMO, and/or the DBC, not to Matulovic. The expectation of all VWoA’s employees should be in support of the company’s overall strategic goals, not just their own business units. Volkswagen of America: Managing It Priorities Matulovic who is the chief information officer of Volkswagen of America (VWoA) has a tough decision to make. Volkswagen’s subsidiary launched a new process for allocating budgets across the business. With the new process, they have derived at a list of approved projects that no one is happy about. Calls came flooding through to Matulovic with an informal request to insert an unfunded project into the IT department’s work plans. VWoA had projects requiring $210 millions and the parent company of VWoA (Volkswagen Group, VWAG) budgeted only $60 million. In choosing the right projects to fund was a process that consisted of three phases: Phase 1-Calling for projects, communicating process, and identifying dependencies, Phase 2-Formal project requests for business unit, and Phase 3-Transforming business unit request into enterprise goal portfolios. Phase I was able to reduce and re-categorize projects because business units realized that many of their initiatives were very similar to other initiatives throughout the company which lead projects to become grouped together into common enterprise projects. This phase identified dependencies among projects. Therefore, without completed projects, the other projects could not be started. This phase also involved members becoming exposed to information about proposed initiatives across the company which gave them a greater understanding and appreciation of different business units. This helps migrate away from the current silo thinking and start focusing on initiatives in an enterprise-wide level. At the end of this phase, the proposed $210 million was simplified to a list of projects that required $170 million. Phase 1 was a critical starting point in aligning all business initiatives and trimming down projects. With the list in hand, we now step into Phase 2. During Phase 2 each business unit was required to classify each proposal into the type of investment (stay in business, return on investment, and option-creating investment) and technological application type (base-enterprise IT platform, enterprise applications, and customized point solutions). These classifications would influence how particular investments would be treated in the selection and prioritization process. Business units had to rank projects by priority and associate projects with enterprise goals. There was criticism that projects were reclassified as enterprise, but they really weren’t enterprise projects. The is because business units had to think of ways to associate their project with enterprise goals to improve chances of funding since the stay in business projects were given high priority, then the enterprise projects and finally individual business units. So if your project wasn’t a stay in business or enterprise project then the business units were tempted to reclassify their project to an enterprise project instead of a business unit. This built frustration as managers are looking for their own funding but don’t have the overall view to properly prioritize which lead other projects get the funding. Finally, Phase 3 consisted of ranking business unit goals based upon enterprise goals/needs. The key concept of governance is to align organizational activity with corporate goals and strategy. The assessment of the new process is to align business goals with enterprise goals and fund the top priority projects that would support the next round of growth goal areas. The NRG program is the readiness program called â€Å"Next Round of Growth† it was aimed to define the goals, functions, and organizational changes required to support and enable the new global product diversification strategy. The Next Round of Growth Enterprise Goal Areas is to support expanded product portfolio which is customer loyalty, new vehicle value, pre-owned vehicle business, stable infrastructure, and optimize supply flow. In order to reach a final project list, VWoA had to simplify and categorize projects, assess their business impact, and distinguish their alignment with goals all while making trade-off decisions. The process is an improvement over the old process since the business units were required to prioritize based on the enterprise-wide goals instead of their own business unit. It also avoided the less organized and less centralized method in prioritizing projects. The new process led business units to work together and make decisions that would affect their unit using the overall company strategy. They would also recognize other business unit’s priorities and provide a greater appreciation of their business unit and the work that they do. This helps alleviate other business units ranking their initiatives as more important than another. As this being a new process at VWoA, this process failed to capture and fund the supply flow project. The unfunded supply flow project revealed a flaw in the new process system. The supply flow project did not get funding because it was recognized at the global level and not at the VWoA importer level. The loss of funding would constitute a major setback for globalization initiatives based in Germany so this particular project must be funded somehow and Matulovic had to think of options on how to make this happen. The recommendation at this point is to remain focus on the most important strategic goals of VWoA and proceed funding all projects in the final project list in the top-ranked portfolio. He should not take funding from other funded projects to try and help fund the supply flow project. That would lead to intense push back and affect working relationships since projects which are important to VWoA’s strategic goals will be neglected. He should also not leave it to the supply flow area to work out what to do about this project because that decision would lead to a project waiting to fail. Dumping a project on them to figure out, without the proper resources is nearly impossible to successfully complete. Re-opening the new prioritization process that took nearly 3 months to complete is unnecessary and wasted time. The process will not have to be reopened, rather to find alternative sources for funding to proceed with the supply flow project. Due to the global reach of the project, it is unreasonable for the project to be funded solely by VWoA, but rather allocating the funds under the parent company or among all companies under the umbrella of the parent company, Volkswagen Group. Volkswagen Group sets the budget at VWoA and several organizational entities at VWoA would play a role in controlling which projects are funded. There are four specific teams involved in this process: the ELT (Executive Leadership Team), the ITSC (IT Steering Committee), the PMO (Project Management Office), and the DBC (Digital Business Council). If they are unable to find alternative funding then they should consider this project as an exception or special condition to figure out a way to fund the project. This is common where successful businesses continuously create new opportunities which cannot be covered by existing IT decisions. Matulovic should reach out to the supply flow group in Germany to present and communicate the different options for alternative funding and the importance of funding the top-ranked portfolio and the supply flow project and get them involved in the solution process. In managing IT priorities in the future, there needs to be a change in the new process to include support and recognize the global level projects and not just at the VWoA level. This ensures other vital projects don’t fall through the cracks like the supply flow project in this case study. The Volkswagen Group should reevaluate that proper funding is allocated for both the VWoA and global level initiatives. Matulovic’s fellow executives that communicated the concern of unfunded projects were involved in the decision making process and if they thought these goals didn’t align with the company’s goals, then they should have voiced their concerns to the process teams, ELT,ITSC, PMO, and/or the DBC, not to Matulovic. The expectation of all VWoA’s employees should be in support of the company’s overall strategic goals, not just their own business units.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Harrah’s Database Gamble Essay

Harrah’s is the world largest provider of branded casino entertainment; it has around 25 million customers (2001) 25 casino with 40,000 gambling machines in 12 states. For years it had been a fairly small gambling company but, by 2001, had emerged as the second largest in the industry. By the mid-1990s, the gambling Business was flourishing and it was difficult for Harrah’s to survive in the markets due to intense competition, so they came up with a strategy of introducing a customer relationship management (CRM) software which helps to know their customers exceptionally well. A CRM system coordinates all business processes for dealing with customers, which in Harrah’s case includes both gambling and hotel customers. .The overall system Harrah’s developed has been named WINet (Winner’s Information Network) . The heart of CRM strategy was customer loyalty program called total rewards . Harrah’s CRM-based strategy appears to be a great success. Harrah’s say it keeps the customer information confidential and that it is not out to exploit gamblers. However, opponents of the gambling industry have criticized Harrah’s use of customer data. Harrah’s claims the Total Rewards program actually gives these people rewards instead of encouraging them to gamble more. He Further clarified that All we used to know was how much money we made on each machine, but we couldn’t connect what kind of customer used them , but with the help of technology he could get all the data of the customers. 1. Analyze Harrah’s using the competitive forces and value chain models. Harrah’s is facing intense competition. This competition is coming from established competitors as well new players Customers have many options in terms of how, when, and where they gamble. Harrah’s is using its new business strategy to create a new service, and catch its customers. Harrah’s new information system is having a strategic impact on its operations, sales and marketing, and service activities. 2. Describe Harrah’s business model and business strategy. How do they differ From those other gambling companies? Harrah’s business strategy is a customer relationship management strategy. (CRM). CRM system coordinates all business process for dealing with customers. Harrah’s uses its CRM software to identify and track its profitable customers. Harrah’s Total Rewards program allows gathering information about its customer’s gender, age, location, games they like to play as well as reward its customers for the amount of time that they spend gambling at Harrah’s casinos. Harrah’s competition relies on fancy reward schemes, due to which Harrah’s is getting to know its customers by studying and analyzing their behavior. 3. What role has database technology played in Harrah’s strategy? How Critical is it to the success of the company? Database technology is the heart of Harrah’s strategy. Harrah’s database Record information about Harrah’s customers, including gender, age, home location, Favorite games, length of playing time, size of bet, number of bets, average size of the bet, and total points. Harrah’s uses information for its business Processes to create marketing programs for its customers and also retaining in its customers each time a customer makes a transaction his record is updated. Harrah’s all casinos have access to the centralized database because of which Harrah’s employees are able to view each customer’s record and offer that customer same treatment regardless of which casino the customer visit. Database technology helped them to gain a 13% profit in the first year itself. 4. How did Harrah’s use CRM software and modeling tools to address the Company’s problem? Harrah’s uses CRM software to organize business processes that deal with Customers. After combining its gambling and hotel reservations data, Harrah’s uses its CRM software to build gambling profiles for each of its customers, analyze the customer data, and create different marketing programs. Harrah’s WINet system enables the company to estimate how much money the company can earn from a customer over a period of time. 5. Are there any ethical problems raised by Harrah’s use of customer data? Explain your answer. There is an opportunity to gain more money by selling the customer data but Harrah’s has said that it will not sell customer data to any organization. Some competitors criticized that Harrah’s is exploiting gamblers, If this argument is true, then encouraging a person with a gambling addiction to spend more of his money, is obviously wrong. He Justify by saying that the Total Rewards program actually gives these people rewards instead of encouraging them to gamble More. 6. What problems can database technology and customer relationship Management software solve for Harrah’s? What problems can’t they address? The database Technology and customer relationship management software enable Harrah’s to Maintain sharp customer profiles, analyze its data to identify the most profitable customers, improve its customer service, and offer consistent customer service. The database technology and customer relationship management software help Harrah’s achieve a competitive gain in the gambling industry. The database technology and customer relationship management software cannot address organizational issues, such as the switch from a casino-focus to a Customer focus, loss of privacy fears, and gambler exploitation criticisms.

Is Herodotus the father of History or the father of lies? Essay

In Evaluating whether Herodotus was a Historian or an extremely charismatic storyteller, we must not look at Herodotus â€Å"The Histories† through a modern judgmental eye but rather through one of a person that should be fascinated that a man called himself an â€Å"inquirer† ,about a world that was filled with so much unknowns of which he discovered more of everyday. Herodotus distinguishes to his readers the mere fact that his whole life’s work could very well be continuous tale of foe and disillusion or a series of facts encrypted in his narratives about the era and events that surrounded him but all he did was simply keep a record of what people had told him and things he had afterwards investigated â€Å"I am obliged to report stories that come my way but in no way inclined to believe them. â€Å"However this also gives reason for modern historians to clash on whether Herodotus could be held liable for his legitimacy as a historian (even if the word originally meant an inquiry, exactly what Herodotus claims to have been doing)and the authenticity of his sources even if through them he has given us a further insight to the Hellenic Period. Nevertheless to accuse a person of falsity one must not only look at world’s Herodotus has perhaps created but his time in the one he actually lived in. Although little is known about Herodotus life other the fact he was born in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor and that must have been from the upper class since he had the financial capability to travel, many things can be inferred about his personality and therefore the credibility of his writing. What is clear is his curiosity about past events and different culture’s tradition all of which Herodotus wanted to learn firsthand not just by reading but rather experiencing them first hand either by visiting distant lands such as Egypt where they occurred but also by hearing about them from as many people who had lived through them themselves, only to conclude and form his own opinion. Being the first of his kind to actually research his material and question it and use a variety of different sources to create it, Herodotus having the claim to the title â€Å"Father of History† it can only assume he is worthy of it, being a pioneer and revolutionary of his era and paved the way for future inquirers to learn from his methods and investigate events, just so. Herodotus begins with a monumental phrase of his pure intentions â€Å"so that human achievement’s may not become forgotten in time and some great and marvelous deeds-some displayed by Greeks, some by barbarians-may not be without their glory; â€Å"and to discover some reasoning on the origins of why battles began â€Å"show why two people fought with each other†. He initially presented his work in oral theatrical manner to an audience of Greeks in Greece. Presented to an audience who is much unlike a reader preferences in the sense that all an audiences wishes is to be entertained rather than informed and educated. Herodotus toured Greek cities mainly during festivals, and gave personal performances to Greek audiences then got payed in return. Thefore some over dramatic elements of his writing can only be due to his attempt to captivate his audience. After Herodotus passed away editors separated his life’s work Histories into nine books. The first five books look into the past to try to explain the rise and fall of the Persian Empire. They describe the geographical elements of each state the Persians conquered and gives us insight on their customs. Herodotus uses phrases such as â€Å"according to the Persian account† to show that the Greeks probably had a different way of viewing the same event (in this case on how Io came to Egypt in Book One). The following four books is the story of the war itself, consisting of the invasions of Greece by Persian emperors Darius and Xerxes to the Greek victories at Salamis, Plataea and Mycale in 480 and 479 B. C. Herodotus work parallels mythology, and at numerous times gives mythological accounts. Mythology basically are stories based on an altered version of truth and accompanied by a vast development in imagination and creatitivy. Most of Herodotus narratives are identified as mythological which is problematic in essence. A prime example is Herodotus in his first passage in The Histories where he narrates a century old tale of Lydian Royalty and how it came to be that Lydian monarchy changed from the family of the reigning king Candaules and fell into the hands of his servant Gyges. The story has a natural appeal to any audience due to one of Herodotus’s main theme revenge and other factors such as his use of violence â€Å"one of you must die; either my husband, the author of the wicked plot; or you, who have outraged propriety by seeing me naked† , whether this story has any truth in it, it will be definitely be disregarded due to the tale being as old as it is and even if it had not been subject to neighborhood gossip, whatever source had told him the story must have been extremely well informed to know the specific details on what happened in exclusive parts of society. Thucydides who relied mainly only factual evidence and criticized Herodotus for just this greatly and for his aimless storytelling and insertion of fables in his narratives. Another landmark in Herodotus narratives is his use of oracles and their pivotal determining role not only to influence decisions but also to instill fear into obedience â€Å"not even the terrifying warnings of the oracle at Delphi† and the focus on the significance to powerful individuals for instance, according to Herodotus, one of the oracles given to the Athenians during the Persian invasion of 480 B.C. was â€Å"the wooden wall only shall not fall, but help you and your children). While some Athenians interpreted this literally that the prophecy referred to the survival of the Athenian Acropolis from destruction, others thought the â€Å"wall of wood† as ships. However, the latter interpretation failed to make sense of the last two lines of the prophecy, â€Å"Blessed Salamis, you will be the death of mothers’ sons, When the corn is scattered, or the harvest gathered in†. It was interpreted that if the Athenians were to engage the Persians in a naval battle, they were destined to lose. Despite this unfavorable omen, an Athenian commander called Themistocles decided to dismiss the oracle by arguing that if the Athenians were doomed, the tone of the oracle would have â€Å"not have been expressed in such mild language†. The Athenians were convinced, perhaps not by Themistocles’ interpretation, but by the fact that it would be better to fight the Persians, rather than not do anything, as seemingly suggested by the Oracle. The Athenians gained a decisive victory over the Persians, and was the turning point of the second Persian invasion of Greece. However After one Xerxes has a â€Å"terrifying† Dream Artabanus is portrayed to give revolutionary advice to Xerxes that â€Å"dreams do not come from god† but rather â€Å"what we have been thinking about during the day† even if ultimately it was decided that vision seen in Xerxes dream was godsent. Naturally along with his ability to dramatize and over emphasize Herodotus also has a Proathenian Bias and presents a less laudable side of Sparta and their imperialist inclinations such as Sparta’s early attempts to conquer Tegea and Cleomenes I attacking Argos where Herodotus reports that a large proportion of Argive infantry (6000 men) were killed in the conflict although the city itself was not taken and Argos who was once a worthy opponent of Sparta now â€Å"was left so short of men, that the management of town affairs fell into the hands of the slaves†. To answer the question whether Herodotus is The father of Histories or the father of lies one must first understand the significance of Herodotus work and not dismiss any accuracy, we do know exists such as how many Persians and Athenians where killed in the battle of Marathon. Even If the facts are hidden beneath layers of captivating storytelling and gossip this does not give reason for Herodotus to be a fabricator of events . His technique in collecting and examining evidence is primitive and thus his title of Father of History is not one that should be altered.