Sunday, March 31, 2019

Morton and Frith Causal Model Dyslexia

Morton and Frith Causal Model DyslexiaDespite diametrical definitions of dyslexia, expert views very largely agree on two introductory points. First, dyslexia is identifiable as a developmental difficulty of row study and cognition. Secondly, the long running debate ab a steering its existence should give itinerary to building professional expertise in identifying dyslexia and developing effective modes to help acquireers everywherecome its effects( go up, 2009 9). There be many complex issues to submit in developing an enamour definition of dyslexia. wiz of this is that in that location is no specific blood test or brain imaging closure that merchantman offer a diagnosis. There is a range of unlike opinions both written and performance actions which be found on the hazard to comp ar performance of antithetical formats (Mc Kendree et al., 2011). Firstly, elaboration of the influential causal mannikin framework of Morton (1985) is a major tool as it analyses th e larn difficulties from the sight of biological ca calls, cognitive difficulties and behavioural influences. According to Morton (1985) these bio-psychosocial factors atomic number 18 interconnected and variation an essential role towards the syndrome called dyslexia. Based on this lesson, I testament specifically focus on various traditional and advance(a) sound judgements of yarn recognition and phonological sensory faculty, including metreized tests, in statuesque instruction inventories, reflections and retellings. phonologic cognizance is a vital part in skill to infer (Robelo, 2000). There ar noticeable correlations amidst phonological awareness and initial yarn, much replicated, and gene calculate been obviously affirmed (Gillam, McFadden, 1998 cited in Robelo, 2000). Because of the correlation that exists between rendition and phonological awareness and the look at to identify small fryren at risk for cultivation failure, many tasks throw been developed to treasure a frys seeledge of phonological awareness (Robelo, 2000). Therefore, children need two signifi tint skills in order to read triple-crownly phonics and language apprehension. Regarding the issue of choice of assessments in that location are a dole appear of arguments. Indeed, thither are some advantages and limitations as far as utilize these measures is concerned and we should examine these measures before r separatelying a final result. Also, before conclusion it is important to none that failure to identify and address dyslexia early, gage give a additive effect.Mortons Model (Causal Model for dyslexia)According to the British Dyslexia linkup (BDA, 1996) Dyslexia is a complex neurological condition which is constitutional in origin. The symptoms whitethorn affect many areas of erudition and pass and may be exposit as a specific difficulty in learning, spelling, and written language. One or more of these areas may be touched. Numeracy, notio nal skills (music), motor role and organizational skills may also be involved. However it is particularly tie in to mastering written language, although oral language may be affected to some degree (cited in Ott, 1993).Dyslexia as a precise developmental disorder raises interesting issues about the structure of the commonly developing oral sex (Frith, 2009191). Accordingly Morton and Frith(1995) the phrase causal model is used to describe the origins of a disorder (Krol et al., 2004). Causal model is related to the biological and cognitive origins of developmental disorders and in this way, records are being kept of the a range of takes of commentary -biological, cognitive, and behavioural. Morton and Frith (1995) distinguish three take aims of description, the biological level, the cognitive level and the behavioural level there is a separate space for environmental influences which can move at the three levels. Using the biological level, the genetic factors, the brain con ditions, and causal links between the two can be described. In this level we can also include the influence of environmental factors, for example, birth complications on brain conditions (Krol et al., 2004). In the cognitive level, affective as puff up as cognitive factors, can be incorporated. An affective factor would be usually placed at the intermediate cognitive level, although Morton and Frith highlight that affect can also be defined at the biological level as a physiological reaction or defined at the behavioural level as the expression of the affect, such as the facial expression.On the separate hand, due to the fact that the internal process which interprets feeling seems to be square in explaining how affect can subscribe meaning, affect touch is placed at the cognitive level. At the behavioural level, the behavioural descriptions of the disorders are also state of matterd. These are the behaviours we can directly observe and where the causal run of the model fin ally leads, e.g., poor rendition. (Krol et al., 2004729). By describing the behavioural level itself does not give a reason why an individual might accommodate a sure problem, such as why a child has problems in reading. causal model includes explanation for a disorder which is a function of the interaction of factors at the cognitive and the biological levels and from the environment. Some of these factors leave alone be of developmental significance, others will describe current processing. The cognitive level cannot be observed directly, but is in fact assessed at the behavioural level.UK Context Assessments of dyslexia in the first place the investigation of assessments modes, this piece of paper will look for the major perspectives and changes of special and comprehensive knowledge, literacy difficulties and how legislation is applied in the re crosswayional system of UK. In these changes, the significant Acts for the development of SEN are included, such as the Warnoc k Report(1978). The Warnock Report(1978) highlighted the commonality of educational aims for all children irrespective of their abilities or disabilities. Furthermore, it recognized disable learners right to be educated in mainstream schools, thus opening the way to the idea of inclusion (Warnock, 2005). Some of the international conventions and statements that have asserted the principles of inclusive education which influenced the UK policy are stated below the UN Convention on the Right of the Child (UNICEF,1989) which states that inclusive education should be the goal for the education of children with disabilities. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for action on Special Needs preparation (UNESCO,1994) were also important steps for the development of SEN, which ensures that all their educational policies affirm that disabled children could also attend their neighbourhood school which would be the uniform even if there were no disabilities. The Salamanca Statement(UNESCO, 1994) has also been seen as something of a washstand in enhancing the prospects for inclusion throughout the world (Farell, 20016). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (UN, 2006) was ratified by the UK government in 2004 which requires state parties so that to have an inclusive education system at all levels. The problematic temperament of integration coupled with the statements made at the World Conference in Special Education (UNESCO,1994) led to the emergence of inclusive education in England. other significant development in high quality encumbrance for children with literacy and dyslexic difficulties was the come up Review Report (2008). The childrens plan (DCSF,2007), made it piss that the government wants every child to succeed the ability of severally child to read well is a key to success in education and an essential life skill. Moreover reading and writing are two terms closely related and both on the development of childrens ve rbalize and listening capabilities. According to Rose Review(2008), in order to overcome dyslexia and other developmental difficulties of language learning there must be super quality provision for securing literacy for all children, especially in primary schools. In addition, in order to develop high quality interventions for children with literacy and dyslexic difficulties, well trained, knowledgeable t to each oneers and abide staff will be required (Rose Review, 2008).In England and Wales government policies have affected, in many ways for the better, dyslexic pile who must learn structured and phonic approaches are specified in the National Curriculum (Cooke, 2001). The rationale stressed the responsibility of the class teachers by identifying and meeting the individual childs unavoidably in primary schools (Cooke, 2001). According to Gaynor et al., (2011176 cited in Mckendree et al., 2007) a significant first move to helping children with specific learning difficulties s uch as dyslexia was an accurate identification and after the identification there is a variety of different assessments both written and performance base opportunity to compare performance of different formats. As Paris Hoffman state (20046 cited in Oakley Barratt-Pugh,2007) assessments of reading in the early geezerhood can supply several purposes it can identify children who need extra support it can provide selective information for reportingpurposes and it can inform teachers as to the effectiveness of their teaching strategies and programs for meeting literacy outcomes. Assessments can be provided through a variety of assessments tools, techniques or data collection methods, often called assessments, instruments, tools or measures (Oakley Barratt-Pugh,2007).Phonological awarenessThe first part of assignment will be based on the question How is phonological awareness (PA) best heedful? Before examination on assessments methods of PA should begin with a definition. It is wid ely accepted that the lack of PA, the ability to detect and control the finer phonological units in either spoken or mentally recalled wrangle, is the main shortage in developmental dyslexia (Seki et al., 2008). According to Muter et al., (2004194 cited in Rose Review), PA is defined as the ability to recognize and manipulate the sounds in words, and is recognized as a key base skill for early word-level reading and spelling development. The Rose Report (2008) recommended that all children should be taught to read exploitation phonics, taught discretely and systematically inside a curriculum rich in language and literacy. After the Rose Review current implementation of phonics taught in English schools recommends systematic assessment of basic skills on a regular basis during the 3 years of instruction.As Eisele and Jordan claim (2002103 cited Oakley Barratt-Pugh, 2007) there are several ways in which to assess phonological awareness, and which method to employ will depend upon fa ctors such as the number of children to be assessed, the amount of information the teacher already has about the child, and the amount of clip available in which to carry out the assessments.According to Lancashire Primary Literacy (undated) childrens phoneme knowledge and ability to segment and blend are better to be measured individually, as their maturate may not be adequate to(predicate), or well ascertained in the base activities. As stated by Yopp (1988) a combination of PA measures will be the best recipe for cogency and reliability. In my point of view, one of the just about helpful measures assessing PA is the use of phonic bods. Teachers may have a variety of activities for each phonic phases, however teachers should use motivating activities each date to encourage children, in order to have a active reference and overview. According to The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2008) teachers are expected to track pupils progress through a series of developmental phonic phases, with each phase being quantified by a number of phonic-related skills. The phases move from sensitivity to frost and alliteration at Phase 1 to confident and flowing use of letter sound knowledge for reading and spelling unfamiliar words at Phase 6 (Snowling et al., 2011 159). Activities that can support learning in Phase 1-5 are storytelling, linking letter shapes with phonemes, blending and segmenting long vowel phonemes (given by Lancashire Primary Literacy). This measure had a number of strengths and limitations too. The variety of the phonics activities make the method more certain and valid to the users, and there is a plenty of choices each time. An additional advantage of this method is the factor of time, because teachers have the ability to endeavor their lesson plan by setting the time limit themselves whereas at the same(p) time this could be a disadvantage because it could also be time consuming. As Konza (2006) claims close to ofthe pho nological awareness capabilities and skills can be assessed development inlump assessments. However, if screening or informal assessment methods find difficulties, formal and diagnostic assessment, should be carried out (Oakley and Barratt-Pugh, 2007).An additional measure of assessing phonological awareness is the Yopp-Singer (1992) test the purpose of this test is assessing phoneme segmentation abilities. This assessment is consisted of 22 genius syllable words, which children are asked to segment into individual sounds. This assessment is not normed, but facultybenchmarks are suggested. It is quick to administer and they can provide important information on which instruction can be based (Oakley Barratt-Pugh, 2007).Reading experienceThe second section of the essay will be referred to the next language and literacy difficulty that children may facet from kindergarten and that is reading wisdom. During the period of the last 15 years, great progress has been made to the area of reading, and particularly in reading recognition. But what is reading comprehension? How is reading comprehension best measured? According to Farr (1992 cited in Carver, 1972 292) reading comprehension can be defined as thought communication process which involves two primary components, the rate at which the thoughts are received and the accuracy with which the thoughts are understood. The end product of these two components is the efficiency with which the thoughts are communicated. Reading comprehension is one of the most commonly assessment methods across all the introduce of ages, when it comes to educational skills (Svetina et al., 2011). In order for someone to be an efficient reader they must have a set of phonemic awareness and phonemic skills that allow for radical words to unlock. According to National Centre for Learning Disabilities, children might face trouble when reading in the late grades if they lack phonemic awareness. In addition, childrens reading could b e improved in identifying the phonemes in words by using simple techniques. In this piece of paper, various traditional and innovative reading comprehension assessment measures will be critically analyzed, including formal and informal methods such as standardize tests, observation and informal reading inventories. severally technique has its relative strengths and weaknesses. According to Gunning (2002) whatever the method of reading comprehension is the material which is given to students to be read, must be at their instructional level in order to be read with an adequate fluency. If the student cant read at least 95% of the words, they will have a lot of trouble when reading.The first technique of reading comprehension which will be explored is similar tests. What is being measured by standardized tests to measure reading comprehension? Do these tests measure comprehension accuracy? What are the strengths and weakness of this technique? Standardized tests are mean in a way which, questions, conditions for directing process to set the hemorrhoid are accurate and are scored in a fixed and standard way (Popham, 1999). Standardised tests are administered and scored in a structured, prescribed way to ensure consistency and reliability. Such tests often have scripts that are read out by the teacher / administrator. Standardised tests may be norm-referenced or criterion-referenced and they are always formal assessments. As suggested above, the use ofstandardised tests ask careful consideration as many are based on the assumption that literacy is a set of skills that a child has or needs to acquire. In addition, because, they are normative they are often used as an indication of a childs overall ability rather than an indication of what is til now to be learned. Therefore the cost and the time are some of the strengths of standardized assessments. At the same time, most assessments are scored easily by calculator and not by people. In my point of view, thi s is an assessments limitation, because tests should be scored by a human and not by a device.As mentioned above there is a number of variety of assessments of reading comprehension. The next reading comprehension method is the classroom assessment practises, that are specially informal reading assessments (observation). As Buhagiar states (2007 cited in Oakley Barratt-Pugh, 200710) informal assessments rely on skilful, knowledgeable teacher construction and interpretation and are often regarded as more reliable than standardised and or commercial assessments. Most informal assessments of reading comprehension take place in school or classroom as teachers and assessment specialists select or construct methods to estimate and summarize student performance (Leslie Caldwell, 2008). Teachers use a variety of methods to assess student learning at quite a few points in any semester using common techniques for instance end-of unit tests, quizzes of various types but some substitute class room assessment are less obvious (Snow, Grifn, Burns, 2005). There are some informal and different assessments options which are considered to be the core for the successful assessments of learning, such as student observations, self reporting measures, performance inventories, group work, interviews and they usually provide converging indication over time for the appropriate total assessment at the end of the school year (Snow et al., 2005). individually general type of informal assessment category can be carried out by means of several precise tasks and in different formats. Teachers and administrators have the responsibility to concentrate on appropriate tasks and interpretations of tasks outcomes so that students are not assessed un fairly, despite the informal assessment method used (Snow et al., 2005). In my point of view, the use of informal assessments methods of reading comprehension is more reliable and realistic than using the stereotypic testing formats like standardiz ed assessment methods. There is a range of advantages using informal methods, for instance, they are fairly simple and straightforward using these methods by teachers, and they can gain a lot of important information about childrens progress (Snow et al., 2005). Furthermore, informal tests should function in a way which provides more objective assessment than after-the-fact public opinion or overall subjective assessment (Snow et al., 2005). As claimed by Moss (20039 cited in Leslie Caldwell, 2008) evidence for the validity of classroom assessments include the match between instructional objectives and classroom instruction as well as the finish to which an assessment contributes successfully to the teaching and learning process .Additionally, the reliability of assessments methods responds to the stage of, which assessment creates reliable measurement with regards to different scorers or contexts (Salinger, 2003 cited Leslie Caldwell, 2008).Classroom assessments permit a much wid er range of tasks and student observations (Snow et al., 2005). Observation has an advantage over verbal reports in that they supply the observer with proof of what children actually do (Baker, 2000 cited in Klinger, 2004). Students might be observed during independent reading time or while they are in smaller groups, peer or cross age tutoring or cooperative learning activities (Klinger, 2004). Teachers value the observation as a useful instrument and feel that district assessments are less helpful than examining students written work, listening, asking questions and talking anecdotal records (cited in Leslie Caldwell, 2008). On the other hand as, Snow et al., (2005) assert, that in a classroom assessment, students may feel that they do not achieve well, then teachers may be disappointed by a specific performance by a student. An additional limitation of using observation method is that they can be time-consuming (Klinger, 2004). Furthermore, it can be complicated to find out what is causing a child to behave in a certain way. It is significant to exercise caution when taking observation notes and to identify that there can be many alternative explanations for a childs action (Klinger, 2004).Another promising practise for examining reading comprehension is the use of oral retelling. Retelling a story requires a student to sequence and restructure events and major sources presented in text (Hanse, 1978). In addition, retelling assesses a students ability to rely on shop for accurate details and to relate them to some organized significant model (Klinger, 2004). Burns and Roe (2002) suggest that asking students to recall and retell text is a precious measurement tool. An advantage of retelling is that the teacher is able to know what the student understands. However, a disadvantage is that retelling must be conducted individually and therefore are time-consuming to score.The above elements illustrate that by using a combination of different measures such as o bservation, retelling, informal reading inventories, think-aloud and standardized tests might be the best way to assess reading comprehension and phonological awareness (Klinger, 2004). However, due to concerns about the low level of validity and reliability ofinformal assessment types, in some circumstances, teachers may need to triangulate results with other assessment types to ensure as high a degree ofveracity as possible (Oakley Barratt-Pugh, 200711). Through combinations of approaches, we can learn more than just identifying whether students can read a passage or reply to reading comprehension questions accurately.ConclusionThis essay enabled me to obtain precious insights with regards to the assessments methods of phonological awareness and reading comprehension. As mentioned above, these two skills are significant in order to read successfully and there is a strong correlation between these skills. Due to this correlation, numerous assessments methods have been developed to assess a childs knowledge of phonological awareness and reading comprehension (Robelo, 2000). Each technique has its relative strengths and weakness. The point is that assessment, no matter the context, is serious worry and must be handled with care, purpose, and exercise (Snow et al., 2005 363). Taking this into account, I assume that teachers must be very careful with the choice of methods for reading comprehension and phonological awareness, and each assessment method should be examined cautiously and the needs of each child, should be considered thoughtfully. In my point of view, classroom assessments and especially informal methods of reading comprehensions have more advantages than using formal assessment methods such as, standardized tests. With classroom assessment methods, teachers have an overall view for the childs progress on the other hand I think that standardized tests are not so reliable and may have impact on the childs life, as a mother stated. As mentioned above , in order to assess youngish childrens reading in a fair, valid, comprehensive, educative and explicit way (Curriculum Council, 1998), it is demand to assess children by multiple methods, in multiple contexts, on an ongoing, cumulative basis, preferably as a part of the normal teaching and learning context (Oakley Barratt-Pugh, 200799).

Review role responsibilities and boundaries as a teacher

check egress fictitious character responsibilities and boundaries as a instructorEnsuring encyclopedism takes place so the syllabus requirements atomic number 18 met and the scholarly persons be promising to succeed in their judicial decision. This is more and more master(prenominal) in todays climate for the tutors c beer and the colleges reputation.Being up to time in the subject you ar article of faith and developing cheeseparing physical exercise in your sustain bea, development how to evaluate, reflect and communicate.Adhering to your organisations code of pr causeice, cognitive operations and master(prenominal)taining appropriate admit deep down the college for slip dressing and professing appropriately, not swearing in front of the assimilatorsand in addition egressside, for trialple working(a)s in the sex manufacturing would bring the profession into disrepute world awargon of the organisations procedures for number unrivaled aid, happenin g decl areing, evacuation procedures and defend operate such(prenominal) as IT, library, public assistance.Being promptarriving in advance to arrange the environment so the class flock start on timeback up resources are available, for exemplification in case of technology failure, and a contingency plan in case students finish more quickly, or slowly than remained. solely materials inevitable are availableCompleting on the whole germane(predicate) records, attendance and exam submission etcBeing available for tutorials and secondTo watch and value in all learners as and to provide compare of opportunity and well-disposed activities to suit the motley of learners. This includes ensuring the environment is supportive and conducive to acquisition, and ensuring the students are come up toing each early(a) with respect and to be seen to be dealing with racist behaviour.Learning is accessible and comprehensiveThe tutor has the responsibility to hear the get hold ofs of all learners are accepted and catered for.The teacher whitethorn wish to profile the group in the inauguration weeks to assess how they learn best, for example H championy and Mumfords 1986 profiling activist, pragmatist, theorist, reflector. This looks at a learners tendencies, do they prefer traditional teaching rules such as didactic delivery, or active discussion etc. Another profiling method was developed in 1987 by Fleming he noted three styles of accomplishment. He called these visual- like seeing, aural- like listening and kinaesthetic like doing. These are obscure from whatsoever special neces impersonateate students may earn.Its essential to ac fellowship that every champion is contrastive and brings various strengths, weaknesses, experiences etc to the class. The teaching style, method, resources and assessment can past be qualified to the of necessity of the individuals in the group.Inclusivity and unalikeiation are core components of the curriculum for teacher procreation for the attainment and skills orbit. They are an accepted break off of the body of beneficial competence and k instantlyledge expected of s tutor in the learning and skills sphere of influence. Tummons p101?To provide assessment and feedback.Assessment is a way of finding out if learning has taken place. It enables you, the assessor to ascertain if your students save gained the required skills and k this instantledge necessitateed at a facen point towards a family or qualification. Gravells p75 2007 preparingAssessment and feedback are necessary for the student to know how they are doing and how they can improve. Feedback and assessment can be given through with(predicate)out the learning process, acknowledging each students contribution and saying something positive about it. Feedback also under(a)stands the teacher knows that students understand the content, and this is useful for lesson evaluation and improvement.Initial assessment may be carr ied out, if students wealthy person to have a level of prior knowledge to view onto the course, commonly this may be a certain level of literacy and numeracy. This religious services to understand the student has the basic skills to sucessfully complete the course.Most slew need fosterment, to be told when they are doing something well and why. When giving feedback it can really dish the student to hear first what they have done well, followed by what they need to improve, and then to end on a positive note or uncertainty to keep them motivated. This is sometimes referred to as the praise sandwich. Gravells p86 preparingSpecific comments which highlight what was good or could be improved are more useful to the learner than general comments, such as well done or could do better.To check into the environment and materials are appropriateIt is a good mind to arrive in advance of the lesson to en authentic thatThe teaching room is situated out as you hope it and on that po int is enough seating and workspace. interactive sessions may work best with tables grouped together.Any equipment you want is bring in and working.The tutor is responsible for the health and arctic of the students so you may have to report if the room is not safe.Materials are appropriate for the group, for example you have extension materials available and any resources are adapted for students with special needs, for example large font handouts.To maintain an awareness and abide by relevant legislationfor example Every Child Matters,Data Protection and damage Discrimination playact.BoundariesThe boundaries surrounded by teachers and students are arguably less build now than before the advent of in white-tie communication devices, such as email, wide awake phones and cordial networking technologies. Through these technologies teachers and students can associate virtually outside of the college environment. The college may even encourage teachers to be accessible, even of ho urs, and to participate in forums and online discussions. It is a matter of contemporary debate if teachers should allow students to be their friend on sites such as Facebook, as through these teachers may reveal face-to-face in human bodyation that may undermine their leave or lead to all over familiarity or even electronic stalking. fareual meetings outside of college should also be avoided, as should making friendships, this may blur the boundaries between teacher and student and lead to accusations of favouritism.Avoiding physical contact is now generally considered best practice, and if one to one sessions are taking place in a non mankind area it is advisable to leave the door open. This openness is less likely to lead to accusations of inappropriate contact.Once upon a time, teachers simply did not inhabit outside school. There was a dictated distance a clear definition of roles lines that should not and, more often than not, could not be crossed. That fixed distance i s shortening those old boundaries between passe-partout and private, home and school, springal and informal are blurring. http// bringing up/2009/sep/23/teacher- schoolchild- knowledgeable- dealingshipT2Summarise the key aspects of current legislative requirements and codes of practice relevant to the teaching role.Control of substances tempestuous to health 2002 (COSHH)o Covers substances which can cause ill health. Contains provisions to retain injury or illness from dangerous substances. Good management which help assess risks, implement any measures needed to control exposure and leave good working practicesReporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) The statutory obligation to report final stages, injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences that take place at work or in connection with work liberation Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997Plans and procedures in case of fire. The Workplace Fire Precautions p olity brings together existing Health Safety and Fire Legislation to form a set of dedicated Fire Regulations with the objective, to gain a risk appropriate standard of fire delayative for persons in the workplace.The manual(a) Handling Operations Regulations 1992Precautions when lifting or moving heavy objects. Risk assessmentHealth and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981Legal duty to keep a first aid box and have at least one prescribed person.Race relations (Amendment) act 2000To get ahead equality of opportunity, and good relations between racial groupsSpecial groomingal Needs and hindrance affect 2001 (SENDA)To recognize healthy ad fullments so they are not disadvantaged.The UN Convention on the Rights of the childInternational human corrects treaty applies to children under 18. Gives them certain rightsa such as the right to have their views taken into flier, to be surrender from violence, have rights to expression. sufficient opportunities act Data trade prote ction act 2007 safeguards the rights of individuals with regard to the touch on of personal data and its free movement. The Data Protection Act (1998) was drafted to ensure the privacy of personal entropy stored electronically on computers nationwide. The Act inventions to incite high standards in the handling of personal information, and so to protect the individuals right to privacy.Anyone holding data relating to living individuals in electronic format (and in some cases, on paper) mustiness follow the Acts 8 data protection principlesThe 8 Principles of Data ProtectionUnder the DPA, personal information must be Fairly and lawfully processed Processed for specified purposes Adequate, relevant and not excessive Accu cast, and where necessary, kept up to date Not kept for longer than is necessary Processed in line with the rights of the individual unplowed secure Not transferred to countries outside the European Economic Area unless there is adequate protection for the inform ationhttp// Health and safety at work act 1974 Protecting employees against risks to health and safety. Responsibility for h and s with the employer, but also duties on employees to for their own safety. Provision of safety equipment, instruct and risk assessements. Special educational needs and disabilities act 2001 (an amendment to the stultificationdiscrimination act 1995)o baulk discrimination Act 1995, fashioning it unlawful to discriminate against disabled persons in custom and the provision of goods and facilities The Disability par Duty (DED)The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 has been amended by the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 The General DutyThe Act sets out a General Duty, which requires that public bodies have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination and promote equal opportunities for disabled hoi polloi. They entrust also need to consider the elimination of h arassment of disabled people, publicity of positive attitudes and the need to encourage the participation of disabled people in public life. Clearly, this General Duty has implications for the educational sector and the way that topical anaesthetic authorities, schools, colleges and universities set about equalising opportunities for disabled pupils, students, staff and parents. http// saucy-disability-equality-duty-975In 2001, the special educational Needs and disability Act (SENDA) was introduced, and from 2003, a new prick of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) came into force. DDA part 4 all providers of post-compulsory education were lawfully obliged not to discriminate against students with disabilities, this may mean making reasonable adjustments for a student with a disability. Further education and training act 2007The Further procreation and Training Act 2007 has today captured imperial Assent. It was introduce d into Parliament on 20 November 2006 and ideal its passage on 18 October 2007The Further Education and Training Act enables key aspects of the unless education reforms described in the March 2006 White Paper Further Education Raising Skills, Improving Life Chances. The barely education system ordain be able to increase participation and achievement still further and so play its full part in achieving the skills challenge articulated by Lord Leitch.The Act includespowers which will enable the specification of further education institutions in England to award their own foundation degreesprovision alter the Learning and Skills Council (LSC), in certain circumstances specified in the Act, to throw in in the management of unsatisfactory further education provision in England, with similar powers for Welsh Ministers to intervene in institutions in Waleshttp// mail service for standards in education (Ofsted) Employment equality (age) regulations 2006 vocational training. The Employment cope withity (Age) Regulations 2006 becomes law on 1 October 2006. This law makes it illegal to discriminate against employees, commercial enterprise seekers or trainees on the grounds of age.Age is accepted as the commonest form of discrimination in the workplace. We already have laws in place to prevent differential treatment on the grounds of race, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and religion. This is not just a law to help older workers keep their stage businesss until they retire, but to give all workers irrespective of age, a longer and better quality of working life. Younger workers will benefit because they will be paid the rate for the job, not a lower rate than older workers doing the kindred job. altogether businesses benefit from the value of a assorted workforce. Discrimination and victimisation are counter-productive and lead to an unhappy workplace where staff turnover is greater and job satisfaction diminished. Training will no longer be refused to workers because they are close to retirement or because they are too young. No employee should make derogatory remarks about another employees age toll such as wet behind the ears, old codger, should have retired years ago and other such remarks are discriminatory and therefore after 1 October 2006 will be illegal.http// Learning and skills act 2000Race relations Act 1976 under this act discrimination on the grounds of colour, race, nationality, ethnic, or national origins is illegal.The Equal Pay Act 1970 is an Act of the United demesne Parliament which prohibits any less favourable treatment between men and women in terms of pay and conditions of practice session.For an employee to claim under this Act they must prove one of the followingThat the work done by the claimant is the same, or broadly the same, as the other employee.That the work done by the claimant is of equal value to that of the oth er employee.That the work done by the claimant is rated (by a job evaluation study) the same as that of the other employee.Sex Discrimination Act 1975 under this act treating anyone less favourably because of their sex or marital status is illegal.The Children prick 2004, keeps a record of information about children, and their involvement with health, legal and social services to help to track them, for protection. One of the duties placed on local governing is to make arrangements to promote co-operation between agencies and other appropriate bodies (such as voluntary and community organisations) in order to improve childrens eudaemonia (where eudaimonia is defined by reference to the five outcomes), and a duty on key partners to take part in the co-operation arrangements.Every child mattersprofessionals enabled and boost to work together in more integrated front-line services, built round the needs of children and young people common processes which are designed to puddle and underpin joint working a planning and commissioning manakin which brings together agencies planning, supported as appropriate by the pooling of resources, and ensures key priorities are identified and addressed and strong inter-agency governance arrangements, in which packetd self-will is coupled with clear estimateability.A code of practice standardises the work of a profession and sets out the service that should be expected. This gives the public confidence in the work of the profession and makes the profession publicly accountable.There are 2 key organisations involved with codes or practice indoors the learning and skills sector Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) 2005 and the institute for Learning (IfL).Ifl code includes professional Standards for teachers, Tutors and trainers in the Lifelong Learning Sector www.lifelonglearninguk.orgCS1 Understanding and keeping up to date with current knowledge in respect of our own special iser area.CS2 Enthusing and motivating learners in own specialist areaCS3 Fulfilling the statutory responsibilities associated with own specialist area of teaching.CS4 Developing good practice in teaching own specialist area.T4 discuss issues of equality and diversity and ways to promote comprehension with your learners. Review other points of referral available to meet the potential needs of learners.The further education sector is known for making education and training accessible to a diverse population of learners, and to provide opportunities for certain groups in society that have been excluded. In the lifelong learning sector, especially with the current emphasis on work based learning, the base of learners is more diverse than ever before.Tummons describes three key terms in the learning and skills sectorWidening participation learners from underrepresented groups are recruited and supported to enable them to take part in education.Differentiation teaching and learning is planned to take account of the individuality of learners.Inclusive practice ways of learning and teaching that encourage the fullest participation by all learners.Although the terms equality and diversity are often perceive in the same sentence there are key differences in their meaning. Equality seems to infer that everyone should have equal opportunities, in this case in education, so you may figure this government agency everyone should receive the same education and you can provide the same learning activities. However, recognising the diversity of learners means that one size does not fit all, and to provide equality of opportunity we actually need to recognise that learners will require a diversity of educational opportunities and may need to be treated differently.Tutors cannot treat their group as just one big group of learners it is make up of individuals, who may need slightly different things from their tutor or their college in order to make the most of their course or political platform of study. Tummons becomingEquality may be achieved byFlexible courses measure and venueDistance learningSupport within the classroom i.e. a note taker or signerProviding additional support in the form of key skillsProviding assistive technology i.e. magnifiers for visually impaired learners, speech knowledge software.Someone with mental health issues may need more one to one support.Financial provision free travel, childcare, subsidised or free course fees, i.e. EMABlind marking of work, where the tutor does not know who completed the work.Ensuring resources and language used is non sexist, and non stereotypcalInclude multi cultural examples and case studiesChallenge discriminatory or stereotypical comments by learners and ensure mutual understanding between different cultures, religions and age groups.Arrange the physical layout of the classroom to take account of any special needsFor example hearing impaired students should sit near the front of the cl ass and you shouldnt talk facing away from them. award room for wheelchairs and arrange ground floor accommodation.Ensure resources are accessible and inclusive, for example dyslexic students may find it easier to read black text edition on a yellow background.Teaching and assessment is delivered in a variety of ways maybe an assignment can be in the form of an oral presentationThe teachers attitude towards the diversity of students will also be noticed and may influence the learners. They will be cream up on the way the tutor is handling the class and how they are talking to students, therefore its important to be a good role model.Tummons p101Petty p69all students must feel that they are positively and equally valued and accepted, and that their efforts to learn are recognised, and judged without bias. ..they must feel that they, and the groups to which they belong (eg ethnic, gender, social-class or attainment groups) are fully and equally accepted and valued by you, and the es tablishment in which you work.The introduction of ILPs for many courses helps individual learners to plan what they want to achieve and the required outcomes. The tutor can then monitor the learners turn over against these goals.Wallace 2007 p114,When talking about a lesson plan An additional column headed inclusion and differentiation woulod remind the teacher at the planning stage to think carefully about the issue of inclusiveness in relaation to the learners for whom the learning experiences are creation planned. And it would act a sa reminder after the lesson to evaluate the success or otherwise of these alternative strategies, which might also have included different ways of assessing or recording an individuals achievement.Information about equal opportunities may also be available within the institutionposters in the classroomEquality policy explained at induction and in the student handbook.Equal Opportunities Governors must ensure that the school acts with fairness and with regard to equality in everything it does. This is with regard to all of the followingracedisabilitysexsexual orientationreligion or beliefage (in relation to employment)This section outlines the national framework for change which is underpinned by theChildren Act 20041 3.9 The Government is affiliated to ensuring more young people stay on in education and traininguntil they are 19. The aim is to make sure that young people aresupported to realise their potential and develop positively through their teenage years. We wantto provide a wider range of opportunities for young people and we want to ensure appropriateand timely support for young people with additional needs. This will include better advice andguidance, more tailored to the needs of the young person and relevant to todays world.Duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and youngpeople commences 1 October 2005.Equivalent duty on schools in Section 175 Education Act (2002) alreadyin force. lay out with equi valent duty on schools and Further Education through theEducation Act (statutory guidance Safeguarding Children inEducation, Sept 2004). Comply with the Special educational Needs (SEN) statutory framework. Review policies and support for SEN to ensure effective delegating ofresources to support early intervention and inclusion reduced reliance onstatements ensure appropriate provision improve specialist advice andsupport to schools and information to parents and reduce bureaucracy.Consider how best to work with other Local Authorities and SEN RegionalPartners to share ideas and plan support.Consider how to promote effective support for SEN in early years. IntroductionSection 140 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000 places a power and a duty on the Secretary of take to make arrangements for the assessment of young people with learning difficulties and disabilities when they are childbed or likely to undertake post-16 education or training or higher education.The Learning and Skill s Act 2000 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It make changes in the funding and administration of further education, and of work-based learning (or apprenticeships) for young people, within England and Wales.Every Child Matters, or ECM for short, is a UK government beginning(a) that was launched in 2003, at least partly in response to the death of Victoria Climbi. It has been the title of three government papers and the website, and led to the Children Act 2004. Every child matters covers children and young people up to the age of 19.Its main aims are for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need toBe healthyStay safeEnjoy and achieveMake a positive contributionAchieve economic well-beingEach of these themes has a detailed outcomes framework attached to it which require multi-agency partnerships working together to achieve them. These include childrens centres, early years, schools, chi ldrens social work services, primary and secondary health services, playwork, and Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) . It is important that all professionals working with children are aware of the contribution that could be made by each service and plan their work accordingly.1It is now in place in all schools2 throughout the United Kingdom and it is the central goal of Every Child Matters to ensure every pupil is given the chance to be able to work towards the goals referenced within it.5. Achieve economic well-beingEngage in further education, employment or training on leaving schoolReady for employmentEvery Child MattersEvery Child Matters Change for Children is a new approach to the well-being of children and young people from birth to age 19.The Governments aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need. This means that a variety of organisations, including those involved with education, will be teaming up to share information and work together, to protect children and young people from harm and help them achieve what they want in life.monitoring the educational progress of all looked after children who are being educated within their authority, whatever the background knowledge (school and 14-19 further education settings), as if they were attending a single school.T3 ground rulesAct confidently with the class from the beginning, body language, initially teachers have authority because of their role, and should expdect to be obeyed.Apply rules and sanctionsUse manners polite, use names, use icebreakers to ensure leasrners get to know each otherRole model of being prepared, organised, provide actiities to engage learners,Express rules clearly, apply them consistently, negotiate rulesDecide what deportment IS ACCEPTABLE DEPENDING ON THE LEARNER.Be aware what behaviour is appropriate dont expect the impossibleStudents need to know what you expect from them and what they can expect from you during the course. They need to know where the boundaries lie and what will happen if they step over the boundaries. govern them up on the wallHave a written slimTell them what they can expect from the teacherAware of college disciplinary procedureCan be revisited or revisedExplain the vALUE of having rules exact them for good and bad examples of classroom behaviour in respect of learning, what makes learning difficultAgree or disagree with a set of rulesShould they be revised what are the consequenceshttp// because everyone may have alter expectations of appropriate behaviour.I see ground rules as mutually hold reciprocal arrangements where others views and needsare appreciated and valued. This creates a safe and deferential space in which all participants have theopportunity to benefit from the learning experience.Group discussion of expectations and incorporation of allviews e nsures that every student feels heard and included. This form of inclusion facilitates amemorable establishment of ground rules which are individually as well as collectively meaningful.When discussing ground rules with learners it is important for the teacher to establish their ownrules which reflect their commitment to the teaching/learning relationship. My own ground rules wouldincorporate being fully prepared for lessons and ensuring I keep good time for classes to start and finishpromptly. I would return learners commitment to completing assignment by making sure that allmarking is completed and returned in equally good time. Further rules to ensure students get the mostout of their learning experience encompasses my making sure all have an equal voice when expressingopinions.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Leisure: From Ancient Greece To Today

blank utmost From antique Greece To TodayLeisure, use as an all-inclusive term to describe the import, conditions, functions, and fortune complex in which recreation / play occurs (Murphy, p. 22), and shag so be seen as a concept or study which lone(prenominal) offers training about the vogue in which concourse spend their spargon quantify, hardly is confusablely actually far more(prenominal)(prenominal) intriguing and multifaceted. An divulgeicipationing occurrence is that the term blank is derived from the Latin word licere or to be permitted to give all over from occupation or service (Murphy, p. 24), thus presentation the solvents of vacant world lay offhanded from the physical and forced activities like labour. In this paper I go away attempt to examine what precisely unfilled entails and how it can be linked to personal identity formation, as tumefy as depicting the developments in untenanted as a concept without history. In prescribe to do so, I will touch upon deuce-ace remarkable periods of the medieval first of all superannuated Greece as the period of the great philosophers, thus the period around 1900 in Western Europe, and finally I will research the significance of vacant in todays globalising world. Finally, to discuss the relationship among leisure and identity formation, I will incorporate the subsequent topics indoors all(prenominal) historical clipping frameThe concept and division/ approachability of leisureThe relation between work send out and leisureThe link between leisure and human developmentThe genial differences between individuals and groups of individualsAfter having discussed each succession period in detail and having thus constructed a command timeline of leisure, I will round up with a conclusion hoping to puzzle out in then found tells to the questions surrounding the nonion of leisure.Ancient GreeceAncient Greece, which is largely considered as the period from the Arc haic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BCE to 146 BCE and the papistic conquest of Greece subsequently the Battle of Corinth (Amazines), can be seen as the era of the great philosophers who we tranquillize recognize today. non plainly this is what makes Ancient Greece so fascinating, but this is excessively the period in which leisure as a concept emerged, with the cultivation of the self interpretation developed by Aristotle (384 B.C. 322 B.C.) (Murphy, p. 23). During these days, leisure was seen as an activity used to seek the truth, and the understanding of the self. Contemplation was key, and it was considered a notion of being free, and of not being occupied with work or other commitments. plainly which exact activities did leisure entail then? I believe that Anderson puts it properly, though from the Greco-Roman perspective They learned music and con scarper it and enjoyed the physical arts of war and sport. They were skilled in ingenious conversation, and that co nsumed very oftentimes time. But they rarely had an interest in talking about handiwork and ordinary labour or point cared to understand its meaning. In their way of life there was no hurry (Anderson, p. 91). Thus, leisure was at the root of society and its culture, and paved the way for galore(postnominal) great philosophers by dint of talented discussions.But for leisure to exist in the way it did in Ancient Greece as the time free from commitments or work, a distinction had to be made between individuals. This distinction was mainly to allow certain community to engage in leisure, while others were forced to engage in the diametrical of leisure labour and hard work. Or as Murphy puts it the dingy quality of the Ancient democracy gave the leisure program a customs of taste and elegance which was maintained by the nobility (Murphy, p. 24), consequently leisure was made possible for the privileged because thrall existed. The privileged used slavery as a way to express p ower and control, maybe even only for the sake of being in control over others. But dominating and bossing others around, are among the first activities that humans, newly empowered, discovered and enjoyed for their bear off in got sakes (Hunnicutt, p. 60), cover that leisure not only existed off contemplation and conversation, but also of horrid activities creating a division between groups of people. Still, undoubtedly servants and women held in whatever degree of bondage, were able to understand the difference between the times in their lives when service was required of them, and other times when they were free to do more of what they wished (Hunnicutt, p. 60). So, although leisure is mainly seen as a privilege for the higher classes of men, also the women and slaves experienced leisure to whatever extent. This shows that the approachability of leisure differed depending on your class of sexuality, but that around likely everybody experienced it to some extend in Ancien t Greece.Therefore, leisure should be seen as key to human development. Not only did it pave the way for great philosophers and religious men, others also used it in connection to their identity as it is part of human nature. For the Greeks, leisure was used as a cultural arena in which life-sustaining questions of human means and ends, of use of goods and services and hence of meaning, induct been addressed (Hunnicutt, p. 58), and thus gave room to answer significant questions concerning life and human-beings since man is a symbolizing, conceptualizing, meaning-seeking creature (Geertz, p. 140). Leisure could be seen as a means to understand the meaning of life, and come to know and develop the self. Leisure thus led to identity and self-development through personal growth and freedom, since the sign of an educated person was alive(p) leisure (Hunnicutt, p. 64).industrial RevolutionAfter the Ancient Greece timeframe as antecedently discussed, the leisure tradition established by the Greeks continued through the shopping mall Ages. The Liberal Arts taught in the universities, the understanding of work and leisure as means to ends, endured (Hunnicutt, p. 67). And when the Industrial Revolution was ongoing in Europe, leisure was still present but significant changes were bit by bit taking dwelling house in its character and the influence it held in daily life. It could be said that a revolution in human history and leisure occurred when capitalism transform the role of work, as one does not work to live, one lives to work (Pieper, p. 40). Then, work became a spiritual end in itself and was thought to answer the questions vis--vis leisure. It also started to take on a submissive role as it was used as a way to achieve and support the highest purpose work. Subsequently, work emerged out of the nineteenth century both as the rear of modern culture and as the glue that held societies together (Hunnicutt, p. 69), and basically took over the role leisure held in Ancient times.But even though work was key, the concept of spare time, and thus leisure, changed over time after the Industrial Revolution had left its mark. For example, farmers and factory-workers worked sixer ten-hours days from sunrise to sunset, and it was not until the sixty-hour work week of 1900 shrank to thirty-nine hours by 1975 (Rosenthal, p. 11), that people possessed more free time to spend on leisure activities of ones own choice. level though they still had to work hard the work ethic gradually changed, people now possessed a day, and later even two, during which they were free to choose what to do. It was no longer the master who possessed free time and told his slaves what to do, the whole day, every day. More money was now being made, and thus being spend during those few hours or days the workers had off and activities related to to sport, education, self-development, and entertainment started to rise. Also, the availability of more and cheaper goods due to the revolution led to an profit in the standard of living, and thus formation of identity. People were slightly and behind more able to establish themselves as different from others, and to use goods to identify with.Finally, it was only in the nineteenth century that the real impact of locomote would be fully felt (Robinson, B). Steam changed the availability of opportunities, as well as leisure. Work was performed faster and more efficient, and changes also happened geographically as factories could now be located anywhere, as well as the workers. expatriation increased due to the invention of railways, and thus leisure opportunities surfaced since people could conk out further and were no longer limited to the area they worked and lived in horizons easy widened.The Ancient Greeks were able to see leisure as their work, but the workers from the Industrial Revolution could only participate in leisure and non-work behaviour after their long days of labour. Not only the conte nt and value of leisure changed, but also the impact it had on the individual. Since the Industrial Revolution, Americans receive inherited a sociopsychological attitude which equates individual self-worth and productivity with working (Murphy, p. 27), thus showing the influence work had on life and ones goals. The Revolution created further interest in the individual in society and the responsibilities of society to them, together with the credit that the ultimate power within society is in the hands of those that are governed rather than the governing classes (Ouedraogo, D). The working class, and thereby the individual and his interests became more important, and people had more choices related to identity formation as mentioned before.Todays globalizing worldThe changes that took place in leisure in Ancient Greece and around the 1900s show its roots, but also the rudiments that have made leisure to be what it is today. Today, the ordinal century, leisure still takes up an i mportant place in umpteen aspects of peoples lives and is still seen as time free from work-related responsibilities (Murphy, p. 27), as well as obligatory household tasks. More and more activities are now pleasant forms of leisure, and more money and time is dedicated to them. Also, due to globalization much more is possible, since the world is brought closer to our home. We now have internet, television, mass media and facilitation of travel anything is possible. Too see what function leisure holds in todays society in relation to identity and development, I will look at it from the followers perspectives behavioural, psychological and social.Behaviour in leisure should be recognized as an expression of the individuals total self cognitive, affective, and motor domains are potentially move (Murphy, p. 29). Thus, pleasing in leisure is key to personal development since it touches upon many important aspects of the individual. Also, since behaviour is goal-directed, leisure ca n also be seen as as direct result of goal-seeking (Murphy, p. 29), and success or failure in such activities will strongly influence ones mental and physical state, as well as future participation. Also, according to the French sociologist Joffre Dumazedier, leisure fulfils three functions relaxation, entertainment, and personal development (Murphy, p. 30), again showing that leisure is key to self-development through exercising ones capacities.From the second and psychological perspective, leisure is also important for self-improvement, as to leisure means to be oneself, to express ones talents, ones capacities, ones potentials (Murphy, p. 30), as stated by Neulinger. Leisure is a state of mind and being, since it is then that one is free to choose what to do and engage in what brings satisfaction, fulfilment and pleasure. Thus, from the psychological perspective, it would tend to analyze leisure activities according to the postulate they satisfy (Murphy, p. 31), which can only b e fulfilled during free time and not through work in work like during the Industrial Revolution was the case. Examples are needs for sex, independence, understanding, getting along with others (Murphy, p. 32).The third perspective is that the social function of leisure, as the most significant determinant of what one does in leisure is membership in a social group. Leisure is a means for establishing and sustaining intramural solidarity (Murphy, p. 32). Friendship and kinship are crucial determents here, and belonging to a social circle with common interests is what individuals aim at through leisure. This can be seen when people participate in sports, theatre, crafts, or other clubs organized to bring those together who are alike. This can also be through identifying with others with similar education, occupation, race, or income some of the socioeconomic-demographic indicators.What also plays an important role in leisure, is the newfound carriage of choice in this globalizing world. So much is present and acquirable when it comes to activities, re springs, knowledge and goods that choice greatly penetrates our culture it has transformed not only how we live but also how we think and who we are (Rosenthal, p. 1), through the presence of excessive choice. We no longer have to give something up in order to gain something else, we can now sometimes have our prevention and eat it too (Rosenthal, p. 9) and now sacrifice les which made our wants become needs. We have embraced change, and the necessity to travel down all of lifes branches is real to us (Rosenthal, p. 9). Since we have excessive choice, our leisure has become so broad and open to our own preferences that we can maximize our own potentials through it. Also, since one hours work buys six times as much now as it did in 1900 (Rosenthal, p. 12) we can spend much more on leisure, and thus again have to choose less and have more.Today, we also develop ourselves through life-threatening leisure, which is the degree of solidness tied to an activity as the activity booking of these devotes shows a degree of intensity that is consistent with flow experience and a patterns of commitment that joins them with others in a unique ethos of shared meaning and intentness (Kleiber, p. 25). Leisure activities of this level can seem to work in some extent, but are free of choice and are therefore sources of self-esteem, self-actualization, and other psychological and social benefits (Kleiber, p. 25), showing the great link between serious leisure and development. Also, since leisure in todays globalizing world is less linked to gender and race and more and more available to everybody, it can be seen as a true sources for self-development and identity formation.Identity formation then takes place not only through serious leisure, but also through more general and simplified versions of leisure. For example, athletics perform sports as their work. For most, engaging in sport is a form of lei sure that brings pleasure and self-improvement, but for a true sportsman this is his identity. He is a footballer, he is a rugby player, he is a dancer. Wherever he will go, this part of him will be at the roots of his other actions since he is so serious about it and cannot afford letting other types of leisure take away from what he has achieved their identification and commitment is evident in join groups and sacrificing other aspects of life (Kleiber, p. 25). This is the same for musicians, many band members identify with their logical argument and consider the musician label to be indistinguishable from their identity.ConclusionLeisure can thus truly be seen as a source of self-development and identity formation. Even though leisure has gradually changed throughout the days and has even shown distinct characteristics during when comparing the timeframes, the core has remained the same free time dedicated activities of ones own choice used to better the self.To conclude, most noteworthy is the part leisure took up in an individuals life. In Ancient Greece, leisure mainly served as an activity that took up the entire day for the elite, whereas for the slaves it consisted of the smaller time free from the orders of the master. It was mainly used to engage in intellectual conversations, and plain activities like sports. During the Industrial Revolution this outlook changed, and work became most important and took over the role leisure used to hold in the lives of the elite self-improvement was achieved through work and not leisure. However, this was also the period when the workers started to protest and managed to receive a better work-week with more free time in the weekend time free to be dedicated to leisure since money was also more available. Finally, in todays society leisure takes up an maybe even more important role and is still the time dedicated to activities free of choice used to develop the self. Thus, leisure has unceasingly played an imp ortant role and its nature has remained constant, while its use and availability has changed.

Friday, March 29, 2019

We Propose Rhb Bank Marketing Essay

We Propose Rhb Bank Marketing EssayWe propose RHB bank to prolong co-branding with Padini belief blood line and come out with a RHB-Padini innovation put in acknowledgement panel to extent the RHB Platinum bill of fare. Our target audience ar workers and upper middle class who atomic number 18 aged at a range between 25 to 45 years old. One of the forward motion strategies we propose to the RHB bank is by means of Sales forward motion by exploitation various types of verifiers. And other types of progression strategies such as Personal sell Strategy, Advertisements and societal Media Marketing Strategy and cover Marketing Strategy.1. Sales Promotion StrategySales promotion is a short-term incentive to gain ground the purchase of a sale a product or serve. This whitethorn be used to ease RHB bank tap into and extent the market place in the Padini theory store. A hard cash voucher may attract guests to induce them in an instant sale and help the consumers to save more. Simultaneously, Padini fancy Store leave overly be able to increase their gross sales revenue, increase the number of RHB banks cardholder and gain loyalty from clients. This is a three wins topographic point to each other. The supplementary cardholders are non eligible for this Promotion.RHB bank could help the cardholders to save more money by sending Padini apprehension Store a monthly 20% throw out voucher to every cardholder through mail according to the appli dealts address. It includes seasonal promotions for example, Mothers Day, Fathers Day, Christmas, Chinese New Year, H on the wholeoween, and Valentines Day and so on. The cardholder entrust be given a Padini monthly discount voucher to get discount on the products among the brands addressable in Padini concept store. If the Padini is doing 10% discount on all items, by using this voucher, the customer screw get another extra 20% discount. For example, if when thither is Mothers Day, the cardholde rs are hardly allowed to redeem the 20% discount in the women department. However, the Padini monthly 20% discount voucher is only valid in every first calendar week of the month.Upon the cardholder birthday, the existence RHB Platinum creed rag will have 30% cash back during cardholder birthday month. In order to improve, RHB bank will contact that particular cardholder, to in earn him or her to come over the Padini judgment Store to get a birthday pose voucher. The birthday devote voucher is worth RM 50. The cardholder may use this voucher to redeem both products sold in Padini Concept Store with the price at or below RM 50. However, if the price of the product is below RM 50, the extra balance is not refundable. Consequently, the cardholder will need to pay extra money to purchase the products if the bill exceeded RM 50 that offer in Padini store by using RHB-Padini Concept Store recognize Card to collect 5 cadences issue points. However, the voucher do-nothing only b e used in Padini concept store. In the Padini Concept Store, there are several brands such as SEED, PCO, PDI, MIKI, VINCCI, and BRANDS OUTLET. The cardholders are allowed to choose to purchase any of the products offered by these brands.2. Personal interchange StrategyRHB bank may adopt the method of personal trade strategies for trying to induce potential consumer to support for RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card in a road point inside or outside the shopping mall, because there are heavy human dealing and many potential customers. Personal exchange is the selling of products and services by face-to-face contact with the customer. This mess be done by having salespeople come near the potential customers in person. If the customer is an existing RHB faith card holder, then the salespeople offer the customer the RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card as a cross selling.However, the salespeople must be well trained, because the salespeople is the person who will communica te directly and immediately to get the consumers feedback. It is a two-way communicating. It finish be expensive and time consuming, but in like manner is the most good form of promotion if compare to other mass communication because the salespeople can make adjustments to address questions or concerns to make the customer much catch about the product. Here is a relationship between personal selling and sales promotion. The first 200 applicants to apply RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card, no matter in bank or online purchase, the applicants are entitle to get a RM 200 Padini cash voucher and a broad HP laptop bag that worth RM 70 for every cardholder.3. Advertisements and Social Media Marketing StrategyAdvertising is a form of mass communication that is paid for and involves the non-personal presentation of goods and ideas. It usually classified as two types, above-the-line and below-the-line. through advertize, RHB bank can communicate and inform potential customers about products and services. Also, give tongue to the consumers about the features and benefits and how to obtain it and finally persuade them to make a purchase. It is classical for the consumers to know what are the lodge trying to offer and it create a position in the market place. Hence, it will enhance both the Padini Concept Store and RBH banks reputation and positive image. This is the relationship of Sales with advertize and promotions.Above-the-line advertising such as television and newspaper does not provide nurture regarding the promotions effectively and it can be expensive. Therefore, RHB bank can go for social media marketing strategy such as the internet. As internet are easily accessible and requires a relatively low cost, more nurture can be provided and easy for the consumer to obtain the learning in the company website. They can just click on the particular advert in the website at everywhere in the world and 24 hours a day. This advertizing enables an organisa tion to reach every star potential consumer at a very low cost. Nowadays, popular social networking sites like Twitter and Facebook can be used to spread the news regarding the promotions. RHB bank may in addition consider creating a Facebook page and putting all the relevant information or pay an advertising fee to create a gnomish advertisement on Facebook social network to build the awareness of the RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card among the Facebook users.The another method is below-the-line advertising, RHB bank may adopt direct mail to send the gift voucher unneurotic with Padini inscriptions to deliver the occurrent promotion to existing customers who already have economic system account and current account or other type of RHB credit card holder to apply for RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card. This method is likewise known as cross selling. Because there are potential, it can lead to a higher probability of getting converted into actual sales. The more financi al products and services they have, the more profitable the RHB bank is. The feedback from customers also will immediately be responded, therefore it is easier to measure the positive result.Because RHB bank is suggested to create a Facebook fan page in order to come along more people to like the page, there must has a gift such as a recycle bag which is printed RHB bank logo to those who have like-ed the Facebook page during the road show. Some of the Padini Concept Store catalogue and any information about RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card may be printed on the recycle bag as an advertising tool. Besides, RHB bank may also distribute the company survey form during road show. For those who have completed the survey will get a free pocket umbrella that has a RHB bank logo printed on it and RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card image. Therefore, it can also be an advertising tool for RHB bank.The last advertisement tool suggests to RHB bank is advertising the RHB-Padini Concept St ore Credit Card in a current on air movie. For example, the main character going to the RHB bank and show the RHB bank logo and the artist use the RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card to make payment in the film. For who have watched the movie no matter in cinema or home will also get the message. Because it is advertised in a movie, it will be impressive and positive positioning to the viewer therefore they will likely to apply the RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card.4. Direct Marketing Strategy (Telemarketing and Direct Selling)Besides, RHB bank also can do direct marketing. Direct marketing is attractive because its positive results can be measured directly. Telemarketing takes the time and cost for finding new customers in the expert time and right people, or generating interest in RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card by taking the information directly to the customer. Besides, it is easy to target the outstrip customers and reach the prospects question with the most potenti al customer. The purpose of this method is to spread the market and increase the number of customer and sales. Telemarketing consistently outperforms all other forms of marketing and is the most powerful, cost-effective marketing tool available today. Thus, it should be part of RHB bank marketing plan.Direct selling is the marketing of products or services to consumers through sales tactics (give voucher) including presentations without go through any middle man. If the cardholder spends more than RM 300 in a single receipt, he or she will get a RM 30 Padini cash voucher. However, there is a maximum amount for the cardholder to get a RM degree centigrade Padini cash voucher which is to spend RM 1799 or above in a single receipt on with RHB-Padini Concept Store Credit Card and obtain the voucher at the payment counter.As a conclusion, promotion strategy is a useful tool in attracting customers. Simultaneously, it can also help the Padini concept store to achieve higher profitabilit y and intone their markets position in the clothing industry and also gain the customer loyalty in RHB bank. Promotional strategies are important for financial services to continual growth, because it is an intangible product, in order to increase the number of customer, there must be enough information and attractiveness to enhance the customer to make purchasing decision.

Study On Charismatic Leadership Management Essay

Study On magnetised f each(prenominal)ing counsel EssayIntroductionNowadays, managing spate is a common issue on all type of businesses but it is essential. To achievementively and efficiently principaling the force play in the shaping with disclose wasting intellectual capital or the companys resources is the specimen that agreements want to achieve.In our research, we attempt to clarify the correlation among the magnetic drawing cards and the organisational change.Charisma is the extraordinary grand power that a soul possesses naturally and let them able to hold out nation, attract their attention and admiration.magnetic lead is the type of leadinghiphiphip which make stack admire and free to follow them. magnetised drawing card is a person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the good righteousness of his beliefs, and able to aro determination a sense of excitement and incident in pursual. According to Max Weber, charismatic leader has a designate that ignites chase nonhing and commitment, which produce results beyond the call of duty. Thus, he had the ability to inspire and motivate people.T present argon several qualities of magnetised leadinghipLofty hatfulsAbility to perceive and empathizeEmpowering and trusting subordinatesProactive, high energy and action orientationE trulything is changing except the status quo of change. Every individuals, all(prenominal) things, could not running out of the scope of change. Similarly to organization, changes leave alone of all time chance upons every part of the companies include their business, their environment, their people and so on.The Objective of this field of flying field is to enhance the leading style of attractive leadership on the organizational change. in like manner, improve the organization to adapt to the changes of environment, and the organization step-up through globalization. content AnalysisFrom the pack, the researchers found that the pursual who rated their leaders as magnetic in any case reported being open and directing the changes occurring in their organization. Specifically, followers of personal magnetismtic leaders were much more open to their transaction- determinations changes and had a compulsive starting time moment on the benefits of the changes to their organization. Given the nature of organizational change and the pervasiveness of employee resistance to change, this conclusion suggests that magnetic leadership demeanors may engender follower attitudes and beliefs that promote preferably than resist organizational change.Besides, a necessary ingredient of triumphful organizational change is leadership behaviour capable of overcoming resistance to change by causing followers to experience a felt postulate for the proposed changes. Indeed, the results suggest that magnetic leadership behaviours, including the ability to power to the full check out an inspiring fancy and communic ate to followers a sense of possessership of the vision, may contact followers openness to organizational change and perceptions of leadership potential. (Kevin, 2005, p. 19)In conclusion, the effectiveness of the magnetic leadership result solve the followers behaviour.From the study, the researchers found that the some(prenominal) of the visionary and expressive delivery components of magnetic leadership stinkpot influence follower chore transaction. The expressive delivery includes having energy, leaning toward followers, assigning direct centerfield contact, having a relaxed posture, and rendering animated facial expressions.Second, they also found that the extent to which separately of these components affects the follower task performance is dependent on the type of tasks in which followers ar suck upd. They suggested that organizations should consider the importance of performance quantity versus theatrical role in their decision to select or promote a magnet ised leader or non-magnetic leader. For example, if performance whole step is much more or so-valuable than quantity, the physical exercise of magnetized vision skill be especially relevant. Regarding task type, charismatic leaders in non-charisma-conducive traffics or industries might be support to adopt a contingent-reward or structuring style of leadership rather than focusing on the communication of a charismatic vision to followers. When followers ar in a more charisma conducive job or industry, leaders should communicate a vision to followers to improve followers task performance.In addition, a charismatic vision may fork up meaning to the task, which can add to followers motivation. Under these conditions, followers might work to get the task done right, resulting in high quality rather than simply working to get the task done. A neglect of vision for followers could, therefore, translate into very poor performance on more difficult tasks. (Stefanie Robert, 2008, p. 102)Charismatic leaderWork EngagementOCBIn the diagram above, it is the combination of the four hypotheses. Four of the hypotheses be all relate with each other. Work engagement is a mediator which is likely an intercessor trying to find solution and between the two disagreement of two parties (charismatic leader and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour-OCB). OCB is defined as individual behaviour that is discretionary. The kind between charismatic leaders is also closely related. As OCB discuss in the main roughly the organization behaviour, it go forth also reflect charismatic leadership. Since charismatic leaders can spark an employees engagement in work, it result lead to more participation in absolute behaviours that promote the organization.In the diary Toward a Behavioural Theory of Charismatic Leadership in organizational Settings, there be some significant variables discussed. The term charisma here refers to the particular type of character by follower an d leaders behaviour. First, the behavioural and nature of the charismatic leader can be determined by doing empirical test. The method can through questionnaire to identify it. Then, they can use the result to comp argon with the person to find out that whether he is a charismatic or non charismatic leader. Second, after determining charismatic leader, it can be use as a tool to change the organization. A charismatic leader may not only key to success of an organization but also vital to countries that are developing which may require to adopt new technologies and transform traditional substance of operating.From the study of Workgroup gender diversity-asymmetric among men and women, the need of charismatic leadership is pay backd from a side of uneasiness and uncertainty establishd in context of weak amicable diversity. For example, change magnitude trains of gender diversity comes with lower levels of pro-social behaviour where the behaviour that is beyond the requirements of the job, higher(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) levels of competitiveness, lower levels of friendliness, and lower levels of job-related satisfaction and self-esteem. This situation brings indefinite and doubtful social circumstance when role expectations are less clear. The reason of these ostracise make of gender heterogeneity comes from similarity-attraction paradigm, which is people with similar attitudes are attracted among themselves, in contrast, misgiving and discomfort could occur when dissimilarity of attribute in group are happened. In the circumstance of gender heterogeneity, tendency of needs of charismatic leadership is greater than in homogeneous group or attribution of charisma is lower in homogeneous group than in heterogeneity group.Meanwhile, the hypotheses are made based on the journal. Hypothesis said that as the level of gender diversity increases in the work aggroup, individual members would attribute higher levels of charismatic leadership to th eir elected leader and the result are part supports this hypothesis. So, as expected, the higher the gender diversity, the higher the needs of charismatic leadership to their elected leader. Besides, they also made a hypothesis that the positive effect of gender diversity on individual charismatic affinity with the leader will be stronger for men than for women. The result shown that, it may happen when team ups are formed in major minor or a equilibrate condition.From the journal of Team climate, work team members tend to share their caprice at work, so cal conduct team affective climate that related to job satisfaction, commitment, and performance of the workers. Related with the climate, team leaders need to play an substantial role in influencing individuals different dimensions and modelling the group climate. The key is leaders with charisma, which can strongly influences the work-team effects, such as performance and other impalpable aspects. In fact, charismatic leade rship is said to be the result of an attribution based on followers perception of their leaders behaviour, specifically behaviours that vocalise and attention build a positive vision and foster an natural depression of the importance of the followers mission. Hence, leader with charisma is said to apply an meaning(a) implication of building team affective climate and they need to articulate a constructive affect that results in a positive affect facing by followers.From the study, they had made fewer hypotheses. First, they posit that higher levels of perceive leaders charisma will predict higher levels of team optimism whereas higher levels of perceived leaders charisma will predict lower levels of team tension. As the result, team optimism and charisma leaders are correlated meanwhile lower levels of team tension cannot create by charisma leaders. Besides that, they also hypothesizes that Leaders influence will make the positive relationship between leaders charisma and t eam optimism stronger at the same time, leaders influence will make the negative relationship between leaders charisma and team tension stronger. The result shown that, both hypotheses are back up by their findings. Lastly, they had made guesses that more frequent leaders interaction will make the positive relationship between leaders charisma and team optimism stronger and negative relationship between leaders charisma and team tension stronger. After they had processed their findings, the result showed that both guesses are not correct.From the study of Political Connection The Missing Dimension in Leadership, Strong Networks cans addendum Other Leadership Deficiencies. While, Larry Chasteen, the PhD holder state out that many people will think leadership is just a part of the business. It is a key ingredient for successful firm, making boodle or non profit and even using in the countries. They put one across examines in the combination of traits to find out the change in orga nization behaviour in the organization. close to even use more than three of the traits such as stimulated intelligence versus intellectual quotient or charismatic leadership versus instrumental leadership.The innocent Myers Briggs has made a classification on uses the four dimensions. There are physics notes that more dimension will lead to confusing from explaining our authoritative traits. This article just focus on leadership charismatic leadership instrumental leadership and governmental tie-ins .These three tools can be use as a tool for self-assessment .It has combine the attributes of leaders , managers and networking.The research demo a charismatic leader is not decorous to change the organization in long term as it can wear complete easily .The instrumental leadership has been include the strength of charismatic leadership. It will lay over through structuring , controlling and rewarding to birth out support for achieving the organization final goal .Charismatic leadership is needed to cause the initial energy and to create commitment. Many government and industry leaders who uses charismatic and instrumental leadership have fail to make changes to the organizations. For example, Colin Po comfortably has exhibit a great charismatic and instrumental that serve him exceptionally well during his early career. But because of his lack of political support, he has been hindered of accomplishment and bequest as a U.S. Secretary of State. However, Condoleezza have a political connections led to a seven-day-lasting accomplishments at the Department of State. As a fact, General galvanizing has passing by such a leadership matrix to capture more variation in selected parameters for company decisions.In a great changing of an organization, charismatic is not enough to achieve an effective institutional re-organization. It requires both the charismatic and instrumental leadership as well with political powers to move on to the higher position. A goo d political connection can overcome the weakness of the leadership and bring strength in any firms and government offices. Make sure you are clear enough on which goals are most important and for the organization are the first steps to career advancement.From the study of Charismatic Leadership A Phenomenological and geomorphologic Approach The author of this journal propose that the most direct involve of the visionary charismatics characteristics is on the perceptions and feelings of the followers. Their interpretative schemes and what flows from them purposefully, randyly and motivationally. Intrinsic and extrinsic hardship are experienced whenever perceptions and feelings are congruent with behaviour is congruent with consequences. Changes in follower perceptions, feelings or behaviour in the consequences of that behaviour therefore could piddle the necessary conditions for phenomenological validity to be experienced.The direct impacts of leader behaviour on the feelings of followers will an indirect impact on the followers. As an example, when leaders changes task or environmental variables, which hypothesized to affect internal and external accord such as task design, reward systems, and organizational structure.There are some proposition consists in charismatic leadership. Proposition is that it believes that it must be based on the articulation of an ideological goal. The writers may not fully agree as in crisis situation, ideological is too restrictive to be broadening to include the cognitions, values and need structures. Propositions 2 will lets he followers experiencing the leaders and others behaviours as well as their own. Propositions 3 to 8 principally concern factors that influence whether cognitions and feelings and behaviours will be high on internal correspondence and will be experienced by the followers as intrinsically valid. Propositions 9 to 15 is concern about the primarily thought to affect external correspondence.The implicati on of the writer model is that charismatic effect may not be limited to a few who are endowed with exceptional gifts or supernatural qualities. They imply that charismatic effect may be widespread. They feel that their model invites an understanding of meaning, reasons motivations, and intentions as it seeks explanatory connections between formal structural arrangements and behaviour.From the study of The role of emotional intelligence and personality variables on attitudes toward organizational change People-oriented research in organizational change explored issues of charismatic or transformational leadership, the role of top wariness in organizational change and the phenomenon of resistance to change, without considering the psychological traits or predispositions of individuals experiencing the change, which are equally crucial for its success. Nevertheless, they argued that individual difference variables, such as venue of control, positive affectivity, openness to experienc e and tolerance for ambiguity play an important role in employees work attitudes (e.g. organizational commitment, satisfaction) as well as they predict self and supervisory assessments of coping with change. King and Anderson (1995) also fated the role of individual differences along with previous bad experiences of change as responsible for high levels of negative attitudes and resistance to change.It shows that there is correlation between charismatic leaderships role perception, personality and organisational change.From the study of Beyond the Charismatic Leader Leadership and Organizational ChangeBy David A. Nadler Michael L. TushmanWhile the subject of leadership has true much attention over the years, the more specific issue of leadership during periods of change has only recently attracted serious attention. What emerges from various discussions of leadership and organizational change is a picture of the special kind of leadership that appears to be critical during times of strategic organizational change. While various rowing have been used to portray this type of leadership, we prefer the label charismatic leader. It refers to a special quality that alters the leader to mobilize and sustain bodily function within an organization through specific personal actions combine with perceived personal characteristics.There are three types of behaviour that categorises these leaders. They are envisioning, change and enabling. In envisioning, it involves the creation of a picture of the future, or of a desired future state with which people can identify and which can generate excitement. By creating vision, the leader provides a vehicle for people to develop commitment, a common goal around which people can rally, and a way for people to feel successful. It is then easier to achieve the new organisational goals. Energising performer that the role of leaders to motivate members in the organisation. Different leaders engage in energizing in different w ays, but some of the most common include demonstration of their own personal excitement and energy, combined with leveraging that excitement through direct personal contact with prominent numbers of people in the organization. They express confidence in their own ability to succeed. They find, and use, successes to celebrate progress towards the vision. Lastly, enabling is where the leader psychologically helps people act or perform in the face of challenging goals. Charismatic leaders demonstrate empathy-the ability to listen, understands, and shares the feelings of those in the organization. They express support for individuals. Because of this, people tend to be motivated in achieving their goals when there is change in the organisation.From the study Journal of ERP Implementation lifecycle, it revealing the changes made by the charismatic leadership. Charismatic leadership is an exemplary type of leadership that shows significant relationship to the level of ERP assimilation.En vironmental sensitivity of a charismatic leader will lead the organization change and make significant improvement to the organization since he is able to diagnose and update himself to the internal and external environment.communicating of the leaders vision is significantly important it will influence and lead his follower to align the vision with the organization and make the organization growth stronger and change accordingly to the leaders vision.Expectation of leader also will hint a positive outcome from his follower and organization. According to Self-fulfilling prophecy, positive expectation from a leader will create a positive desired result from his followers. It shows that, the complete guide and influences of the vision from a leader toward his followers, will affect them to be motivated and collaborated to help in achieving the vision of the leader.Furthermore, complete guide and influences of the vision from a leader toward his followers, will make them to be motivat ed and collaborated themselves that help in achieving the vision of the leader. Similarly warmth of the leader will make the followers feel more support and secure and trust to the leader. Besides, it also builds confident to the followers. If the leader is trusted and regard by his followers, his followers are more likely to follow and help the leader to achieve his vision. and then, the followers do not mind to work hard for achieving the organization vision and thus the organization change and performance increase.Cohesiveness from the follower shows changes in organizational norms and kitchen-gardening. It shows that a positive norms and culture such as organizational citizenship behaviour. Thus, the sleaze of the follower will indicate changes in organizational norms and culture, if this type of positive norms and culture stay longer the growth of the organization will be undoubtedly fast.It shows that a leaders charismatic leadership is significantly related to organizati onal change and all level of ERP implementation lifecycle.ConclusionIn our research there are significant relationship between Charismatic leadership and Organisational Change.Firstly, it shows that a Charismatic leadership behaviour is an exemplary or model for his followers which enable and capable for overcoming the constraints for organisational change. It drives the followers to learn from many aspect of the charismatic leader. Significantly, the behaviour of the leader creates organisational citizenship behaviour toward the employees that allow them to take good care about the organisation image and the internal environment. Similarly to the norms of working of employees, it is also creating a working culture and work standard that improving the performance in an organisation.Secondly, the role perception of a Charismatic leadership is significant important as well as the personal meaning for the leadership. It influences their follower understand of their role and this will i ncur the organisational change. Form this aspect, it shows that if the leader able to give motivation, support and cheer the work of employees will smoothen the organisational changing process.Thirdly, the relationship and collaboration among group, team and the charismatic leadership also will indicate significant changes in the organisation performance and organisational culture. Similarly to the workgroup diversity, the strong and cohesiveness workgroup will indicate high performance culture that makes the organisation have high sustainability where the entire organisation culture can aligns with the organisational performance.Lastly, good attribution from charismatic leadership such as environmental sensitivity, persuasive communication, and bohemian vision will foster and lead the changes in the organisational environment.Recommendation maverick styles used by charismatic leader will often create the undesired conflicts among the colleagues in the organisation as changing the status quo of works. Therefore the charismatic leader had to consider the others feelings and try to make them follow and align with his vision even if he is able to take the accountability and assay by himself.Morals are often covered up by the deficiencies of wisdom. However, wisdom is not always filled up by honourables. This is referring to the negative charismatic leadership. Some charismatic leaders tend to use the leadership style for their own personal gain and thus neglect the moral values. In order to manage change in the organization efficiently, charismatic leaders must put the organizations interest above his personal interest. creation a charismatic leader gives an advantage to him because he may influence others in the organization to follow his bidding and if it is against the organizations interest, it will be very much unhealthy to it. That is the reason why charismatic leaders should have strong moral values in them.Besides that, organizations should also upho ld whistle blowing in the company. This can help reduce the negative charismatic leadership from expanding in the organization. When an organization is facing with changes, it will be disorganized and this will give chances to charismatic leaders to do under the control panel exchanges. By encouraging such behaviour among employees, executives are able to deem most charismatic leaders under control from influencing others for personal gain.Charismatic leaders should also make contingency plans. This serves as a relief plan when the original plan fails to work. During a change, charismatic leaders may be responsible to keep followers in track and to maintain order. This needs the leaders to come out with more plans to keep followers motivated into accepting the change. Some employees tend to resist change and so the charismatic leaders must form plans and considering the scenarios that may happen so that it will make him or her influence them to accept the changes.In addition, du ring a huge crisis, these charismatic leaders must think conventionally and assoil unconventionally. During a change, things will be hectic and many problems may bristle or perhaps conflict may happen among followers. Leaders need to think rationally on how to handle this kind of situation and not just simply jump into it and create even more confusion.Charismatic leaders should also come up with strategies to minimize the resistance of followers to the change. Many followers tend to resist change because they think that it is divergence to mess up their normal routine. As a leader, charismatic leaders need to come up with ways to persuade these types of followers to accept the change instead of going against it in order to reduce the conflict that might have arise if it is not handled properly.