Thursday, February 28, 2019

A Case Study of Joint Venture Banks in Nepal Essay

Using the selective nurture set published by correlative jeopardise banks in their annual reports, and NRB in its supervision annual reports, this paper examines the pecuniary wellness of joint casualty banks in the CAMEL framework. The wellness check up conducted on the basis of publically available fiscal data concludes that the wellness of joint casualty banks is better than that of the other technical banks. In addition, the poring over of indicators of different divisions of CAMEL indicates that the fiscal health of joint gauge banks ar not so strong to manage the possible large scale raps to their balance wheel sheet and their health is mediocre.THE HISTORY OF MODERN commercialized banking industry dates sustain to 1937 A.D in which year Nepal entrust Ltd. was incorporated. Till 1984, fiscal vault of heaven was close to semi personal celestial sphere and distant investors. HMG/Nepal started to liberalize the pecuniary sector in the first half(a) of t he 1980s. solely it speeded up this process just now in early 1990s. Private sector rushed into the finance industries especi onlyy by and by the resto symmetryn of democracy in 1990. Most of the commercial banks came into ope symmetryn during the ten-spot of 1990s. Government of any(prenominal) countries highly monitors and controls the finance industry even in the liberalized foodstuff economy. Government does so due to its high gravity in the national economy, and to build up the confidence of private sector in its financial trunk.Nepal Rastra jargon (NRB) as an apex mo meshworkary authority of the demesne started to monitor and control the finance industry especially at the conclusion of the 1990s by issuing the directives to the financial institutions (FIs). It initiated the killsite and onsite supervision of FIs to maintain their strong financial health and to build upthe confidence of private sector in the liberalized financial dodge and protect the recreate o f the investors. It has adopted the CAEL ( outstanding sufficiency, plus prize, earning and runniness) governance to check up the health of FIs. It has yet to use the CAMELS to rate the financial procedure and check up the financial health. Independent outsiders in like manner displace not use all agents of CAMELS to check up the financial health of FIs in Nepal due to the full disclosures of withdrawd financial knowledge to outsiders. NRB dictated FIs to snitch the financial information in uniform focusing only in the fiscal year (FY) 2001/02. In this paper, attempt has been do to check up the financial health of joint chance banks in the framework of CAMEL.1. Rationale of Regular wellness Check up of mer advisetile BanksNot only the commercial banks but also any FIs require unfluctuating health check up to maintain the confidence of private sector in financial system of the country and protect the interest of defineors, fetchers, sh beholders and other stake holders. The gravity of the importance of reasoning(a) financial sector has change magnitude tremendously after the worldwide financial turmoil of the second half of the 1990s. International monetary authorities much(prenominal)(prenominal) as International monetary Fund and international FI like the founding Bank withdraw belowpinned the call for of healthy financial sector to build up the confidence of private sector in the liber41The Journal of Nepalese trade Studiesalized financial system. in that locationfore, they allow direct their member countries to reform the financial sector and conduct the regular health check up of FIs through onsite and offsite supervision. International FIs like the land Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB) ar supporting the projects lay out in the vein of reforming process of the financial sector of different countries. For example, the World Bank is constantly providing the technical and financial support to reengineer NRB and restru cture Nepal Bank Ltd. and Rastriya Banijya Bank (NRB 2005).Health of financial sector depends on the health of case-by-case FIs. In addition, one-on-one FIs health counts on the myriad large and microfactors. Among the macro factors, semipolitical stability and the real sector addition are vital. The financial health of FIs open fire not sustain without the political stability and sustainable real sector growth with unplumbed health. However, the effectiveness of contagious effect of these macro variables may vary from one individual FI to another. Therefore, health of individual FI should be checked up regularly to agnise the intensity of much(prenominal) effect.Health of an individual FI is a function of duplex factors such as quality of its additions, semi liquid state position, nifty tie-up, circumspection quality, merc clearise sensitiveness and earnings. All these factors instill the different typesetters cases of pretend to an individual FI. polar types o f stakes credit try, interest rate happen, fluidity hazard, commercialise risk, off-balance sheet risk, hostile permutation risk, sovereign risk, technology, operational risk, insolvency risk, affect the health of an individual FI adversely if they are not managed in sustainable manner (Saunders and Cornett 2004).A human action of factors such as quality of assets, financial market condition, foreign rallying market, composition of assets, financial health of its clients, gainfulness, seat of government enough, affect the degree of these risks. monetary health check-up of an individual institution should be made regularly to unwrap the adverse effect of these risks on its health. Micro-prudential indicators such as bang-up adequacy, asset quality, centering soundness, earning and profitability, liquidity, sensitivity to market risk, and market based indicators like market price of financial instruments, credit ratings are utilize as indicators of the sound health of an individual FI (Evan and others 2000). These indicators are explained at length in the ensue section of this paper.2. Theoretical Prescription of CAMELS FrameworkThe Basle Committee on Banking inadvertence of the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) has recommended using seat of government letter adequacy, assets quality, management quality, earnings and liquidity (CAMEL) as criteria for assessing a FI in 1988 (ADB 2002). The sixth member, market risk (S) was added to CAMEL in 1997 (Gilbert, Meyer and Vaughan 2000). However, most of the developing countries are using CAMEL instead of CAMELS in the act evaluation of the FIs. The central banks in some of the countries likeNepal, Kenya use CAEL instead of CAMELS.CAMELS framework is a common method for evaluating the soundness of FIs. This system was veritable by regulatory authorities of the U.S banks. The Federal Reserve Bank, the Comptroller of the specie and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation all use this syste m (McNally 1996). fiscal authorities in the most of the countries are using this system to check up the health of an individual FI. In addition, International Monetary Fund also is using the aggregated indicators of individual FIs to assess the financial system 42Health Check-up of commercial-grade Bankssoundness of its member countries as part of its surveillance work (Hilbers, Krueger and Moretti 2000).2.1 pileus AdequacyCAMELS framework system looks at six major aspects of an FI corking adequacy, asset quality, management soundness, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk (Hilbers, Krueger and Moretti 2000). The first component, jacket adequacy ultimately determines how fountainhead FIs can manage with shocks to their balance sheets. Thus, it tracks uppercase adequacy ratios that take into report card the most important financial risksforeign exchange, credit, and interest rate risksby assigning risk weightings to the institutions assets. For the purpose of cap ital adequacy measurement, bank capital is divided into horizontal surface I and Tier II. Tier I capital is primary capital and Tier II capital is supplementary capital.In Nepalese context, Tier I (core/primary) capital let ins paid-up capital, share premium, non-redeemable preference share, widely distributed stand-in fund, accumulated profit, capital buyback reserve, capital adjustment fund, and other free reserve. Amount of the goodwill, fictitious assets, enthronement in the financial instruments issued by an organized organization in unornamented to the limit specified by NRB, and investment in the financial instruments issued by the organizations having the own financial interest is deducted from the sum of all elements of the primary capital to arrive at the core capital. Similarly, Tier II (supplementary) capital comprises of customary impart red provision, assets revaluation reserve, hybrid capital instruments,subordinated term impart, exchange come toization re serve, excess giveword loss provision, and investment adjustment reserve. Thus, the come in capital of commercial banks is the sum of core capital and supplementary capital (NRB 2005).Leverage ratio can be utilize to measure the capital adequacy of a bank. This is the ratio of banks book regard as of core capital to the book value of its assets. The higher(prenominal) ratio shows the higher level of capital adequacy. The U.S.A. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation return Act (FDICIA) of 1991 has fixed the five target zones i. 5 portion and higher up ii. 4 part and above iii. under 4 per centum, iv. under 3 per centum, v. 2 part and less, of supplement ratio. The leverage ratio falling in the first zone implies that bank is well capitalized.Similarly, the leverage falling in the second zone shows that bank is adequately capitalized. The leverage falling in the last three zones indicates that bank is inadequately capitalized and regulators should take prompt tonic actio n to bring the capital to the desirable level (Saunders and Cornett 2004). The leverage ratio utter in the foregoing discussion is dewy-eyed capital to assets ratio. In other words, assets are not risk adjusted. The 1993 Basel Accord enforced the capital ratio to risk adjusted assets of commercial banks. According to this accord, core capital must equal to or exit 4 percent of the risk weighted assets of the commercial banks. Similarly, the measuring of the supplementary capital should not exceed the amount of the core capital and the fit capital must equal or exceed 8 percent of risk weighted assets (Saunders and Cornett 2004).NRB initially fixed the core capital at the level of 4.5 percent of the risk weighted assets and tally capital at the level of 9 percent of risk weighted assets of the commercial banks (NRB 2058). For the current FY2005/06, the mandatory levels of core capital and entirety capital are 6 percent and 12 percent of risk weighted assets of commercial banks . But NRB has strictly directed all commercial banks that the amount of the supplementary capital should not be in excess to the amount of the core capital (NRB 2005). 43The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies2.2 Asset QualityCredit risk is one of the factors that affect the health of an individual FI. The extent of the credit risk depends on the quality of assets held by an individual FI. The quality of assets held by an FI depends on exposure to circumstantial risks, leanings in non-performing loans, and the health and profitability of bank borrowersespecially the corporate sector. We can use a number of measures to indicate the quality of assets held by FIs. ADB suggests these measuresloan concentration by industry, region, borrower and portfolio quality related party policies and exposure on outstanding loan, approval process of loan, check and balance of loans loan loss provision ratio portfolio in arrear loan loss ratio and reserve ratioof checking the quality of assets of an FI (ADB 2002).NRB uses composition of assets, nonperforming loan to sum up loan ratio, net nonperforming loan to total loan ratio as the indicators of the quality of assets of commercial banks (NRB 2005. NRB has directed the commercial banks in regards to the concentration of the loan. Any licensed FI can grant the fund base loan to a single borrower or borrowers related to the same business group up to the 25 percent of its primary capital. In the same vein, it can provide the non-fund base loan up to 50 percent of its core capital (NRB 2005). Similarly, it has directed FIs to single out the loans into performing loan and nonperforming loans.The loans that are not due and 3 months recent due fall in the class of performing loans/performing assets and others do in the non-performing loans. Further, non-performing loans are classified into three groups sub amount, doubtful, and bad debt/ loss (for expound classification see NRB directive 2/061/62). Commercial banks have to sh uffling 1 percent provision for pass loan/performing loan, 25 percent for substandard loan, 50 percent for doubtful loan and snow percent for bad loan (NRB 2005). Non-performing assets in the total assets of commercial banks was 22.77 percent in the FY 2003/04. But the percentage of non-performing assets of an individual commercial bank varies from 0.76 percent to 57.64 in the same fiscal year. But the normal international standard of the percentage of non-performing assets is 5-8 percent of the total assets.2.3 Management QualitySound management is key to bank performance but is difficult to measure. Itis primarily a qualitative factor applicable to individual institutions. Several indicators, however, can conjointly serve as an indicator of management soundness. Expenses ratio, earning per employee, cost per loan, sightly loan size and cost per building block of money lent can be used as a proxy of the management quality. ADB recommends cost per unit of money lent as a proxy of management quality. But this can not be used as an indicator of management quality in Nepal. Since the data on amount of the total loan mobilized during a particular FY is not available in published financial statements and annual reports. As stated earlier, NRB has skipped up this component of CAMELS in the performance evaluation of commercial banks (see NRB 2005).2.4 Earning PerformanceEarning capacity or profitability keeps up the sound health of an FI. Chronically unprofitable FI risks insolvency on one hand and on the others, unusually high profitability can reflect extravagant risk taking of an FI. There are different indicators of profitability. Return on assets, return on equity, interest-spread ratio, earning-spread ratio, gross margin, 44Health Check-up of Commercial Banks operational profit margin and net profit margin are usually used profitability indicators. NRB uses return on total assets as an indicator of profitability of a commercial bank. In addition, it uses t he absolute measures such as interest income, net interest income, noninterest income, net non-interest income, non-operating income, net non-operating income and net profit, to estimate the profitability of a commercial bank (NRB 2005). 2.5 LiquidityLiquidity risk threats the solvency of FIs. In the case of commercial banks, first type of liquidity risk arises when depositors of commercial banks seek to withdraw their money and the second type does when perpetration holders want to exercise the commitments recorded off the balance sheet. Commercial banks have to borrow the superfluous funds or sell the assets at go off sale price to pay off the deposit liabilities. They become belly-up(predicate) if sale price of the assets are not enough to meet the liability withdrawals.The second type of liquidity risk arises when demand for unexpected loans can not be met due to the lack of the funds. Commercial banks can shew thefunds by running down their bills assets, borrowing addit ional funds in the money markets and selling off other assets at distressed price. Both liability side liquidity risk (first type risk) and asset side liquidity risk (second type risk) affect the health of commercial banks adversely. But maintaining the high liquidity position to minimize such risks also adversely affects the profitability of FIs.Return on highly liquid assets is almost zero. Therefore, FIs should strike the tradeoff between liquidity position and profitability so that they could maintain their health sound. Commercial banks liquidity exposure can be measured by analyzing the sources and uses of liquidity. In this approach, total net liquidity is worked out by deducting the total of uses of liquidity from the total of sources of liquidity. Similarly, BIS maturity laddering model can be used to measure the liquidity of a commercial banks. In addition, different liquidity exposure ratios such as borrowed funds to total assets, core deposit to total assets, loans to de posits, and commitments to lend to total assets are used to measure the liquidity position of a commercial bank (Saunders and Cornett 2004). NRB uses total loan to total deposit ratio, cash and equivalents to total assets ratio, cash and equivalents to total deposit ratio, NRB balance to total deposit ratio to measure the liquidity position of commercial banks in the feast of the performance evaluation of commercial banks (NRB 2005). 2.6 Sensitivity to Market RiskCommercial banks are increasingly involved in diversified operations such as lending and borrowing, transaction in foreign exchange, selling off assets pledged for securities and so on. All these are subject to market risk like interest rate risk, foreign exchange rate risk, and financial asset and commodity price risk. The health of an FI more sensitive to market risk is more hazardous than that of less sensitive. Foreign exchange risk, interest rate risk, equity price risk, and commodity price risk are the indicators of sensitivity to market risk.3. MethodologyAt present, all together 17 commercial banks are in operation. Out of this, Rastriya Banijya Bank is fully own by HMG/Nepal while in case of Nepal Bank Ltd, HMG/Nepal is the major shareholder. There are six joint venturebanks in collaboration with the foreign investment partners and remaining are fully owned by Nepalese investors. For the purpose 45The Journal of Nepalese Business Studiesof this study, the nation has been delimitate in term of joint venture commercial banks. So the population of this study is six. For the purpose of this study, 3 banksNabil Bank Limited (Nabil), Nepal SBI Bank Ltd. (NSBI) and standardized Chartered Bank Nepal Limited (SCBN), were selected randomly (for sampling frame and stress refer to Appendix 1).This study is based on the historical data unwrap by annual reports of commercial banks. NRB has dictated the commercial banks to disclose the financial information in the prescribed format since the FY 2001/02 . So, the comparison of financial performance of commercial banks each other is only possible only the FY 2000/01 onward.1 Most of the commercial banks have yet to hold the annual general meeting and publish their annual report for the FY 2004/05. So, it is not possible to include this FY in the study. Therefore, this study covers the last four consecutive fiscal yearsfrom the FY 2000/01 through FY 2003/04.The analysis of this study is entirely based on the CAMELS framework. As stated in theoretical prescription, health check up of any FIs in this framework is concentrated in the six components capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning, liquidity and sensitivity to market. But in this study, the last component has been dropped due to the presence of much more complication.So, analysis of financial health of joint venture banks is carried out in the framework of CAMEL. Indicators of each component also have been used according to the financial data disclosed in an nual reports of sampled joint venture banks. So, complicated indicators of each component of CAMEL framework of checking up the health of the banks have been skipped up in this study (for the indicators of each component refer to Appendix 2).4. Analysis of Financial Health of Commercial BanksThis section of this paper analyses the indicators of the financial health of sampled joint venture banks in the CAMEL framework. As stated inmethodology, all indicators of the financial health of FIs have not be worked out and considerd, only the indicators permitted by the publicly available comparable financial data have been used to analyze the financial health of the sampled banks. The ensuing section presents the analysis of different indicators of sound health of an FI in the context of joint venture banks in Nepal. 4.1 smashing AdequacyAs stated earlier, leverage ratio, core capital ratio, total capital ratio and supplementary capital ratio are used as the indicators of capital adequac y of an FI. Leverage ratios of sampled banks, in general, show that joint venture banks are well capitalized and they are strong enough to mange the shock to balance sheet. Since the leverage ratios of sampled banks during the study periods are greater than 5 percent.Conventionally, leverage ratio of 5 percent or greater than 5 percent indicates that commercial banks are well capitalized. The indicators TCR, CCR and SCR, of capital adequacy of joint venture banks also corroborate with the implication of leverage ratio. In general, all banks under study have met the capital adequacy ratio as directed by NRB. Only NSBI has not met the minimum capital requirement as directed by NRB in the FY 2000/01 and FY 2003/04. In these fiscal years, its TCR and CCR are disappoint than that of minimum ratio specified by NRB. Similarly, in the Financial information for the FY2000/01 were extracted from the annual reports of the sample banks. But this was not possible in Nabil Bank Ltd.Capital of co mmercial banks in Nepal is negative due to the heavy amount of negative capital of two public sector banks Nepal Bank Ltd. and Rastriya Banijya Bank. Capital of these two banks is negative due to the heavy accumulated losses.Thus, the public sector banks have yet to meet the capital adequacy requirements as needful by NRB. But private sector banks have, in general, met the capital adequacy requirement. The comparison between the capital fund to risk weighted assets ratio of each individual joint venture bank with the aggregate capital fund ratio of private sector commercial banks (IAR) implies that joint venture banks have stronger capital base than that of other private sector banks in general. In addition, average capital fund ratio of joint venture banks during the study period hovers around 14 percent. This is higher than the minimum ratio specified by NRB. This clearly implies that joint venture banks are complying with the directive of NRB on the requirement of the capital ba se of commercial banks.As stated in the foregoing analysis, banks under study are well capitalized and they are complying with the directive of NRB on capital adequacy ratio. But their capital base relative to the risk weighted assets is not so strong. According to the international rating convention, total capitalshould be greater than 19.5 percent of the total risk weighted assets of commercial banks in order to be a strong capital base. But none of the banks under study has the capital fund greater than 19.5 percent of the total risk weighted capital. As indicated by TCR, on the average, capital adequacy of joint venture banks is fair during the study period. Total capital adequacy ratio less than 15 and equal to 12 indicates that capital adequacy is fair and on the average this ratio falls within this range. 47The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies4.2 Asset QualityIt is obvious from the theoretical prescription that the health of commercial banks largely depends on the quality of assets held by them, and quality of the assets relies on the financial health of their borrowers. As stated earlier, many indicators can be used to measure the quality of assets held by commercial banks. But, here, only two simple indicators non-performing asset ratio and loan loss reserve ratioare used to measure the quality of assets being held by banks. The increasing trend of these ratios shows the deteriorating quality of commercial bank assets. In general, 5 percent to 10 percent of non-performing assets is considered as satisfactory level of quality of bank assets, shelve 2 Indicators of Asset Quality of Sampled Banks

Merits and Demerits of the Internet Essay

The meshing is a socially disruptive technology. It has changed the elan we do business, communicate with each other, and counterbalance how we view the homo in the short amount of time that the public has workd it. From its beginning as a project of the Department of Defense to connect its computers together, the Internet is instantaneously a resource that most bulk in the developed world cannot live with forbidden. I myself move back aim been affected by the lucre. I am one of the 1,114,274,426 people who use the profits in its various forms. Whether by e-mailing my adorers, or ordering a book on, I am a part of the net income generation, the generation of people who grew up with the benefits of the Internet.This paper tries to explore how the Internet has touched my life. I will picture to look at both the benefits of the Internet and its drawbacks. Looking at my meshwork use, I see that there are primarily three ship course that I use the earnings for convenience, for learning and lastly for the cyber alliance. Convenience This has got to be the reason most everyday people use the internet, it simply runs functions easier.From electronic mail to word processing, with the internet, previous tasks that are cumbersome and time-consuming are today performed effortlessly at the click of a mouse. You no longer pull in to write a letter by hand, affix a stamp, and thence mail it afterwards time lag for not minutes exclusively consummate days just to send a letter to a friend or colleague. In the amount of time that it portion outs to read this sentence, I could have forwarded a chain letter to dozens if not hundreds of people in my email wield book. Communication finished the internet has radically changed the way we live.By the sheer simplicity and tranquilize of sending a letter through email, we probably communicate with each other to a greater extent and with greater intimacy. It has helped me keep in touch with my fa mily members and friends at home. Even simple messages the likes of trivial requests or a short how are you? delve their finish hitherto half a world a way intimately instantaneously when I press the send button on my email program of choice. Aside from communication, another way that the internet has make lives easier is through electronic commerce or simply e-commerce.From this very chair I am sitting on, I buy my bus tickets, send and obtain money through e-banking and heretofore watch movies. I dont have to move myself out of the house (or even out of this chair) to take care of my basic necessities, leaving me with more time to finish more pressing tasks. Truly, this is a way that the Internet has make my life ofttimes easier. On the other hand the internet has not tho do my life easier, it has also made the lives of shady characters easier too. It has helped spread junk emails, spyware programs, and even computer viruses through its communication lines.My worst exp erience with this was a virus I got from a spam email. The virus completely ruined my laptop and made me reinstall the operating system. Even as I did this, the virus had already spread to other email addresses stored in my email address book. Another thing I noticed is that the convenience of the Internet has made me more impatient. For someone who got accustomed to email and e-commerce, I find that waiting even for very short amount of times has already hold out a difficult exercise for me. Being spoiled by the internet, I now want and expect all things to be done at cyber-speed.A much more serious effect of the Internets ease of communication is the creation of a new arena of law-breaking internet crime. I myself have had no experience with Internet crimes but that is something I dont want to change in the adjoining future. The convenience of the internet has equally empowered me to do my email and obtain and empowered crooks to perform felonies from credit card fraud to pir acy and even identity theft. Information The internet has changed both the way we get coming to information and the amount of information we can have access to. colossal amounts of wind vane pages are born everyday, with equally impressive search engines to quickly comb through these web pages to get the information you want. Personally, I use internet portals such as Yahoo and Naver as they have around everything I need, news, entertainment, weather information, dictionaries, study materials etc. Another thing about information on the internet is that unlike traditional media outlets such as newspapers, radio and TV, the internet is a duplex communication channel. The flow of information from traditional outlets only goes one-way, the TV reports on it and I view it.The internet on the other hand empowers me to voice out my opinions and get feedback on these opinions right away. However, not all information on the internet is reliable. The ease of creating a website has made in formation coming from average Joes look indistinguishable from those of learned academics and authorities. Ease of finding information on the internet has made people unwilling to do research the old way, by divergence to libraries and referencing kn accept authors and peer-reviewed journals or articles.Now, they are just more likely to take as true the first results that Google or Wikipedia gives out. Also, the internet has given white-seeded people and organizations a free outlet to promote disreputable activities and information. Hate groups, dangerous organizations, and child pornographers have used the internet to further their agenda and reach more potential victims. I found myself in an embarrassing postal service once when I accessed pornography on the internet by accident. The thing with the internets ease of providing information is that it makes people think less.It makes us dependent on websites and search engines instead of enforcing our research and information g overnance skills. It lessens creativity and makes us unable to discern which information is true or false, which fact is correct or incorrect, and what is morally good or bad. The Cyber society The internet has truly made the world a smaller go in as it enabled people to meet more individuals from different backgrounds and different part of the world. It has created a worldwide meeting place where people could seek out people who share their interests and values.I myself am a member of this federation by my intercommunicate. My blog allows me to connect to other people just as reading other peoples blogs give me a connection and insight into their lives. My blog also satisfies my need desire for recognition by giving me my own personal space to decorate and post my own thoughts to be seen by the world at large. Another nice thing about the cyber community is that unlike the real community, the internet gives its users a blanket of namelessness. This anonymity gives its users t he license to express their own opinions without fear that it will reflect on them badly.Also, it allows users the granting immunity to talk things and or problems which could be considered socially embarrassing or taboo. On the other hand, anonymity also empowers people by protecting them from function from wrongdoing. Anyone can read my blog and leave scathing and psychologically alter comments without revealing who they really are. Also, it makes one think less of others as people are reduced to a few lines of text on a webpage or chat room. Unlike the real community, the cyber community is impersonal and has no intimacy. Another side effect of being part of the cyber community is addiction.I may be guilty of this to some degree. I tend to overutilisation the internet and in the continual habit of opening internet web pages. You could say that like an addict, I cannot live without the internet. Just like shopping center abuse, I have grown a dependence on the internet and t he cyber community it brings. Conclusion In retrospect, the Internet has really changed the way I lived my life. I am exposed to plenty of empowering technologies that generations of people before me could only dream about. The world is smaller because of it and for the most part better because of it.And it is acquire better all the time, newer applications that make life better through the internet are still being made at a rapid pace. On the other hand, the internet is a tool which could also be used for foul deeds. Internet users with shady interests have used the internet to cause harm and promote their foul agenda. As members of the cyber community, one postulate to be wary of these things as it may leave one open to anything from damage to your computer to damaging scrutiny or even more serious crimes like identity theft. In retrospect, is the internet worth it?For me, even with its downsides, the internet is still a blessing to be treasured. It really does make my life ea sier and allows me to do more things that were unthinkable of even just 50 years ago. One just has to be conscious about how he or she uses the internet. As always, even on the internet, common sense should crow and one should not forsake traditionally held values such as extending courtesy, doing proper research and others even is one is shielded by anonymity in the cyber community of the internet.References Irvine, Marthat. (2004, December 5). Youth Adopt, Drive Technological Advances. gather Worth Star-Telegram, 31A. Staples, Brent. (2004, May 29). What Adolescents Miss When We Let Them Grow Up In Cyberspace. New York Times, , A24. Leiner, Barry M. , et. al.. (n. d. ). A Brief History of the Internet. In Internet Society.Retrieved April 22, 2007, from http//www. isoc. org/internet/history/brief. shtml. Internet innovationStats. com. (March 19, 2007). Internet Usage Statistics The Big Picture. In Internet World Stats. Retrieved April 22, 2007, from http//www. internetworldstats . com/stats. htm. Levine, John R. , Baroudi, Carol. , & Young, Margaret Levine. (2000). The Internet for Dummies 7th edition. Foster City CA IDG Books.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Impact of communities of value on growth of information technology

Communities of determine may be defined as huge networks between individuals kick similar interest in pass judgment. It is often used about(predicate) and inside groupings in which guests, consumers, and concerned stakeholders are dynamic every last(predicate)y networking with each other about a given product, service, or brand. Organizations which still adore ancient shipway of doing business loathe hearing that individuals are sharing training within themselves. Such firms prefer talking more than online communication.Basically, organizations that enjoy fooling consumers pass on attempt to sabotage and drain any attempt of sharing information within a given socio-economic community of value. It is certain that such companies ache to change and embrace information technology fully otherwise they realize no option other than to close doors. There are respective(a) communities of value. Examples of these communities include eBay, Napster, Linux, PHP, MySQL, Amazon, Double -Click, Akamai among others. Such communities form by themselves and are found all over the world, wherever online forums are avail adapted and regardless of whether concerned companies go into or not.Impact on growth of information technology Communities of value confide on pass on technology. This calls for overhaul of entire information technology. As the communities of value grow both in nature and complexity IT capability is to a fault stretched. Thus choose for growth in this industry. Various communities of value need diverse IT options. To tap the collective knowledge of entire network and cut with common interest of members of these communities calls for innovation in the IT industry. For example, just the other daylight Web 2. 0 technology developed options that allowed members to connect in ways that were not possible before.Various groups with common interest and value are able to join networks and get involved depending on favored interest. Through advanced IT or ganizations are able to harness collective value of consumers thus enhancing customer relationship. In conclusion, communities of value keep on increasing and extending across socio-economic boundaries. harvest-festival of these communities brings in technological demands which can only be addressed through reengineering IT industry. Pressure from communities of value leaves the IT field with one option-dynamic growth.

Argumentative Essay: Women Are Better Politician Than Men

There is a mindset in the current society that men make remedy politicians than women. In fact, that didactics is non true. Women make good politicians too, some be even remedy than men in many aspects. Women politicians make stop politicians because they compromise better, are to a greater extent faithful and cooperative, plus they are to a greater extent stubborn as compared to men. One of the best example is Christine Lagarde the first fe manful Minister of economical Affairs in a G8 economy which is the governments of eight of the worlds largest economies(Christine Lagarde, pars. 3).She is also voted as the worlds 9th most powerful woman according to Forbes magazine. Women politicians have a more compromising and friendly nature than men. This ultimately becomes a highly reusable political tool for political campaign. They tend to face difficult situations with a calm attitude. For example, Ms. Indra Gandhi, the first feminine prime minister in India chose a peaceful way to rule her country. When her country was at war with Pakistan in 1971, she signed the treaty of friendship and cooperation with Pakistan to avoid financial hardship and instability in her country (Palekar, pars.2-5).Thus, resulting a stable economy in India. She govern her country effectively by getting moral support from entirely the ministers and maintaning good relationship with the other countries which helped in the economic growth of India. This would not have happened without her compromising and friendly nature. Aside from that, female politicians also are more cooperative and trustworthy than men. Research shows, women are more adept at making people work together.This is because women are better at communicating with each other during work, they implement successful strategies thereby achieving high results. On the other hand, men tend to excel more at bamboozling and cheating. This is proven by the studies of Rolf Kuemmerli and colleagues by repeating a mettles ome called Pris sensationrs Dilemma. This game involves two people, they need to cooperate with each other to obtain a win-win situation. Studies shows that men do not cooperate as well as women because women have a better ability to interact and comprehend messages that one is trying to deliver (Highfield, pars.5-11).In addition, women are found to be more trustworthy than men. This statement is proven by Professor Roger Steare using the Moral deoxyribonucleic acid test by measuring a persons morality and changes in their honor system when they enter the workplace. According to results, women have more moral set , proving that they are more trustworthy (Knight, pars. 3-5). Making them better politicians. Besides that, scientists claimed that male politicians are more decisive than female politicians (Men more decisive, pars. 5-9) .However, that doesnt mean that female politicians are not good at making decisions. In fact, female politician are slight decisive but more strong-mi nded than men as they consider their decision thoroughly before finalizing. sooner making a desicion, they examine the consequences towards an individual, society and the country and seek for a win-win solution. They search for long-term solutions by using retention strategies as a way to improve the results. Thus, they have the capacity to be more equilibrise in decision-making.Not only that, women are more precautious and they tend to make less mistakes in their work. This is because women always think twice and recheck their work before complemental the final touches. This indirectly proves that women are better politicians than men. In my opinion, women politicians make better politicians because they compromise better, are more trustworthy and cooperative, plus they are more strong-minded as compared to men. They have more good aspects when compared to men. Thus, women are better politicians than men.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Urbanisation has changed the face of Mumbai

After living in this busy metropolis, this island of islands for or so 17 geezerhood Ive realised one thing your senses are automatic whollyy heightened. Whether its your eyes that are constantly alert in the fast paced duty or your ears that are forced to hear a cacophony of trains, vendors and honking cars. Your intercommunicate and taste buds that affirm gr sustain accustomed to Mumbais spicy, flavour many cuisine. And of course, weve all had the chance to travel in a packed topical anesthetic train, scare that wed get pick-pocketed, its like were born with a heightened sense of touch too.But I perceive Mumbai to be a urban center of spirits. By this, I dont imply that ours is a city full of stench and smog, no its much more than that akin each home has a distinct smell of its own, Mumbai has these particular flavours and scents that bushel the city and give it character. The moment you step into Mumbai, your impression about the city could vary, depending on wheth er youre an optimist or a pessimist. A pessimist would complain about the foul spirit that comes from the slums, (You should know that Mumbai is home to one of the largest slums in Asia Dharavi, so thats a lot of stink , the amount of vehicular befoulment and smoke from cigarettes, the malodour of overflowing sewage etc. An optimist, on the other(a) hand would enjoy the sterile, sanitised smell of malls, hotels which are plenty in Mumbai. Or you could be a realist like me and believe the city has a dual identity with motley collection of fragrances and odours. But thats a discussion for later. Urbanisation has changed the face of Mumbai entirely quaint little bungalows with terracotta tiled roofs are replaced with high rises made of chrome and glass. Niwas-es and Sadans are pulled down to grass way for Towers and Heights. However there still are some remaining gardens and patches of green like the Hanging Gardens, Jijamata Udyan, the Sanjay Gandhi National Park to cognomen a few. Mumbaikars still visit these parks to get a ottoman of nature. And how can I forget the numerous Chaafa or champa trees with their sweet smelling flowers Ironically this fast pace of industrialisation and development hasnt modify the condition of public toilets in the city. Most Mumbaikars still cringe at the stink that comes from our citys shauchalayas.The part of Mumbai that I enjoy the virtually is the sea. As a child, Id know that we were passing by some Chowpatty or beach by the crisp saltiness in the air. Mumbais fish markets smell of the salty sea too its the smell of freshly caught fish. Most times these markets give off the odour of rotting fish an odour I still find repulsive. And wherefore there is the floating smell of sukka bombil or Bombay duck dried in the sun near the coast Another way of knowing that youre near a crowded beach is the inescapable smell of chaat.The aroma of herbs, garam masala, the tang of squeezed lemons in a plate of bhelpuri or sev p uri are overflowing to set the juices going in your mouth Youd also smell vadapavs being friend and pav bhaaji being prepared taka-tak two dishes that originated in Mumbai. And accordingly there is the smell of piping hot groovy chai, (The term cutting chai is said to have originated in Mumbai too ) sold at tea leaf stalls at every nukkad of Mumbai. Every meal in India normally ends with paan. Another common feature on the streets and many walls of Mumbai are paan stains which have their own disagreeable stink.Sometimes I can tell which part of Mumbai Im in only by the distinctive redolence of that part. I know my train is passing through Andheri when I get a whiff of baked biscuits because the Parle G factory is very close to Andheri station. I know that my taxi has taken a turn at offices Circle because of the aroma of freshly ground coffee beans and the local cafes serving original south-Indian filter coffee. For that matter I still comrade the aroma of freshly baked bread , cakes and cookies from the string of bakeries in my very own Orlem.Travelling in local trains has become a part of the daily process of a large number of Mumbaikars. More than often these trains are overcrowded, modify with more passengers than can fit in. Now its not the sea of bodies that I have an issue with, its the smell of human perspire thats the problem At much(prenominal) times I fantasy of Mumbai during the monsoon. There is nothing more beautiful, more gratifying than rains in the city It gives us Mumbaikars relief from the summer heat, the air smells fresh and clean. The smell of mischievous mud right after a shower is almost magical. Yes, such earthy fragrances are a part of Mumbai too

On Compassion

Annotated Bibliography On Compassion Ascher, Barbara. On Compassion. 5O Essays. Ed. Samuel Cohen. capital of Massachusetts Bedford/St. Martins, 2004. 35-38. Print. Barbara Aschers essay offers examples of every mean solar day life in New York urban center to support her thoughts about grace. She uses two different encounters to back up her arguments and points. The prototypal encounter involved a woman, with a child, giving m whizy to a homeless soul as he starred at the rare child. Ascher questi angiotensin-converting enzymed as to why the woman gave to the homeless. Was it fear or compassion that actuate the gift?The second encounter involved a homeless person coming into a cafe, smelling of cigarettes and urine and the owner rushing to bowl over the man a coffee and a bag of food. Twice Ascher has witnessed this and one argument made was, what compelled the woman to feed the man? Was it because of pity? anxiety? Compassion? As winter comes the mayor kicks all the homeless of the streets and into Bellevue Hospital. Ascher means that what the mayor is doing shows compassion, but another side of her fears it is because of raw humanity offending our sensibilities(38).She uses kindle words to basically describe how population dont similar to face reality and turn back how life really is. People barely walk past the homeless, pretend nothing is wrong and life is pure(a) forgetting about the other humans in rags, starving, and living day to day on the street and in parks. For most it wasnt a life style chosen, yet people only see what is right in antecedent of their eyes An awareness of rags with voices that make no sense and scream in inarticulate rage(38). Ascher believes and states that, Compassion is not a character character like sunny disposition.It must be learned, and it is learned by having sorrow at our windows, coming through the gates of our yards, the walls of our towns, adversity that becomes so known that we begin to identify and empathize with it. (38) Ascher then, compares the homeless to the Ancient Greeks, reminding us of our parking area humanity. In my opinion, I believe that the point of this essay was to speak to people through writing. Ascher made very good points about her beliefs on compassion. For example, how she believes compassion is learned and not just a character trait. I for one agree with her.Being compassionate is not something that you should describe yourself as, but more so an action of doing or giving without second-guessing, or thinking of it. Its something you cut off up as a child in your home and lodge and it grows on you, it becomes part of your identity. In Aschers essay she gets her point crossways with plenty of arguments to back it up. She uses encounters from everyday life so readers can see and understand where she is coming from. Ascher made me change how I see and think about compassion. Thats why she is such a great writer because the execution of her work is just excellent.

Monday, February 25, 2019

A Study of Aesthetics in the Call of Duty Franchise

Different merely the Same An Analysis of esthetics in the shout out of trading Franchise First Person Shooters (FPS) is one of the about famous genres within the gaming industry. It started with titles uniform Doom, Counter Strike, and straight off bid of occupation. Nowadays, console and PC gaming is a billion dollar mark industry. Multiple corporate and independent developers argon working day in and day out to supply the market with better, bigger plunk fors. nevertheless, at that place atomic number 18 some titles which stand out from the rest, titles that of all time seem to be pissed out one more than instalment.One of these stand-out titles is the C alone of obligation Franchise. strain of calling is a series of spicys that at present, carry nine main instalments, and early(a) nine lesser titles to which the only dissentence is the console on which they be compete. By main instalment, this heart that the granulose was released on multiple platforms, which primarily ac shaftledges PC, Playstation and the Xbox. It all started in October 29, 2003 with the release of advert of calling. Since then, there has been a anticipate of Duty release every year, with Call of Duty downhearted Ops 2 existence the most recent adaptation, which came out November 12, 2012.The researcher pass on find out the discussion to the Call of Duty immunity, on the PC platform. To be specific, the quartet most recent feistys which include Call of Duty new(a) warf be 2, Call of Duty new-fashioned contendf ar 3, Call of Duty minacious Ops, and Call of Duty Black Ops 2. The researcher aims to answer the question Is Call of Duty overrated as a franchise? To answer the question, the researcher provide analyze each venture on octonary components of esthetics which include Sensation, Fantasy, Narrative, Challenge, Fellowship, Discovery, Expression and Submission (Hunicke, LeBlanc and Zubek).In answering the question Is Call of Duty overrated as a franchise, the researcher aims to educate both himself and his reader(s) on the richness of proper video spunky summary. Nowadays, it is common to see a indorse receive a large amount of hype, such that gamers, who expected so much from a game, urinate disappointed and end up popular opinion want they wasted their money. It happened to Diablo III, where a sequel was created for the highly successful Diablo II, 12 years after it was released. Many gamers ended up disappointed with Diablo III, where trades to the center field estheticals of the game changed the way the game was going away to be layed. These kinds of mistakes by the game industry, although excusable, could realize been avoided. Likewise, the researcher will usance Call of Duty as an example for this method for proper video game analysis. Hopefully, this will shed light on the matter, allowing both gamers and game developers to better go through the manner by which games should be measured. By analyzing on the divers(prenominal) components of aesthetics, it would be plausible to define the franchise as overrated if they do non signifi mountaintly improve in any one reflection and at the alike(p) metre, depict the same kind of proceeding in each instalment.Before going into the full meat of the analysis, the researcher would like to delve a pocket-sized into the components of artistics that will be used in the analysis afterward on. The researcher wishes to stress that most of the analysis on each aesthetic is based on his opinions, based on the fact that he is a dedicated gamer himself. The nature of the analysis of game design using the MDA format is that it considers both the perspectives of the game developer and the impostor. A key concept of MDA is that the developer and faker cover the game through opposite ends of the spectrum (Portnow).The fake would first watch the aesthetics of the game, the common lawsuit that they argon working it. The developer on the other hand, due to the nature of his work, sees the mechanics of the game, and how they influence the dynamics, and change surfacetually the aesthetics. In understanding the exposition of these mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics, it could be consecrate that a game is overrated when it may be resistent in mechanics alone deliver the same performance in aesthetics. The First Aesthetic plump for as Sense PleasureThe first aesthetic is defined as the games ability to seduce the senses (Portnow). Be it perceive, telephone, touch, taste, or smell, as long as the game is able to stimulate the senses of the pretender, this could be considered an aesthetic. For Call of Duty, the senses that argon (if at all) stimulated argon sight and sound. As a tell apartdown of sight, the most important vocalizations is the gunslinger itself, the enemies and the set or location. A breakdown of sound would be the general tone, and sound effects. For all four instalments of the game inc luded in the research, the artistic production were generally the same.Advances in technology, greater processing power of consoles as substantially as computers allowed game developers to create richer, more detailed and crisp visuals for the game. However with this in mind, the modelling and texture of Black Ops 2 with respect to Modern Warf atomic number 18 2 is signifi piece of asst. However, visuals argon much more than the quality of the image, and have more to do with content. Content wise, there is no contravention. The gun itself and other equipment atomic number 18 the same. Why? Because they use guns that actually exist in factual life, which room that there is no deviation in model and texture.Since all four instalments are set in around the same time frame, the guns present inside are the same. The enemies inside do not differ as swell up. Generally speaking, enemies are dressed up to roughageize them. This is obvious, but this also means that most enemies will be the same. For example, there are multiple instances resent in all four games that require the pseudo to kill people from the middle-east. Scarves, light clothing and the trademark AK47 have aim the definition of the terrorist. Sound, also does not differ since it is highly unlikely for the sound of a current gun to change, because they are based on real-life guns.In multi pseud, the element of music is not as present as in the champion participant option. In the wiz musician, key plot points and tense moments are always supported by a musical s result, and this supports to set the mood. Be it the sad death of an ally or the intense run-and-gun moments, there is the business music for the right time. This would be a reason for a gamer to screw the game, but it is hardly assorted from one instalment to some other. thitherfore, Call of Duty does not change in this aesthetic. This is in fact due to the land on real-life elements which actually help the game perform in t he near aesthetic.The Second Aesthetic Game as Make-Believe The paper on MDA defines the second aesthetic as fantasy. That is, the ability of the game to immerse the player in a role that normally he/she would not be able to partake in (Portnow). Call of Duty excels in their performance under this aesthetic. The paper on MDA explains that sound games would be able to deliver on maybe one or two core aesthetics while great games deliver on leash or four. These core aesthetics can also be defined as the primitive emotive reasons that a player would want to play a certain game. Fantasy, is one of those core aesthetics when it comes to Call of Duty.Whether its being a marine, being a stone-cold killer or a patriot, there is a role that the player is immersed in, and the experience is fed to them in pieces during the experience of play. How this changes from game to game, is other matter altogether. Call of Duty excels in the immersive expression of play, because of the authenticit y of the places, and items inside the Call of Duty Universe and because that the first psyche point-of-view. Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2 in itself is already very expert at this immersive aspect, and the experience does not really change from one instalment to another.The game itself, and the developers of the game, seem to have erect the fantasy formula for the immersive aspect. Some would argue that better graphics are part of the immersive aspect. Things that break the immersive aspect are things like bugs, or errors in shading. These break the player away from the experience, and remind him/her that they are only playing a game. In the opinion of the researcher, this is not true. Games predating Call of Duty prove that good graphics does not equal a complete immersive experience. They may help, but it is not the most important thing.Games like Counter Strike, Half Life, Halo, and pull down up some Doom games manage to immerse the player in another role without life-like graphics. In terms of the second aesthetic, Call of Duty shines. train in the multiplayer where the immersive aspect is not as great (due to the lack of context), the game play alone is enough to touch on the player feel like a soldier surrounded by enemies, armed only with his gun, and his skill. every in all, the experience remains the same. But since it has been said that graphics help marginally to improve it, each game could still be said to have been better than the last, even if it is just by millimetres.The Third Aesthetic Game as Drama The third aesthetic is narrative. This means that the player is playing the game for the narrative. In the terms of Call of Duty this means one thing the single player. Plot wise, the stories of all four instalments cover in this research are practically the same. A soldier is interpreted out of the regular army to join an elite, top secret team up to undergo a save-the-world mission, against an extremist, usually Russian, or Middle-Eas tern. That being said, narrative is not one of the core aesthetics of the Call of Duty franchise.However, it is interesting to say that narrative may be one of the reasons for the game developers to create another instalment. Just like movies, the level where the introductory game left of, is picked up by the next game. The plot in itself is not great, however anyone who contend the foregoing game could be interest in knowing how the story progresses. The narrative in the first tercet games, Modern Warfare 2, Modern Warfare 3, and Black Ops are player driven. In the game itself, the story will not progress until the player decides to move forward. Also, the game is elongated and lacks depth.The player is prone the illusion of choice through the tactical fulfil of moment-to-moment decision, however in the end he/she has to kill their enemy to progress. Therefore, the players role as the main character is not to make decisions but to stay alive. This in my opinion can get old fast. A soul who played Modern Warfare 2 and will play Modern Warfare 3 will know all they need to know, and have seen almost some variation of every part of the campaign. This however, changes in Black Ops 2. The campaign in Black Ops 2 is different from the first three games, and is strongly better for doing so.Although still not having the freedom of total choice there are still moments in the game, subtle and otherwise, where the player is given the chance to change the plot. To go in a higher place ground or below, whether to spare a life or not, these are some of the examples of choice that the player will experience, and will feel a greater depth than ever found in the first three games. Having make an actual choice, a contribution to the plot, the player is excited to play on, anxious to see how his actions impacted the greater scheme of things. When it comes to narrative, the last game is improved significantly.The possibility of choice for the player is no small thing. With choice, came the aspect of multiple endings. In each ending, the player sees how he/she affected the world, and is given an overview of everything that has happened during the campaign. For this aesthetic, Black Ops 2 showed greater depth, and was better for doing so. The Fourth Aesthetic Game as Obstacle Course The fourth aesthetic is challenge. From the nature of the genre, First-Person Shooter, to the background signal of the game, which are the Cold War and a fictional World War 3, it is obvious that the fourth aesthetic is a core aesthetic of the game.For the analysis of the fourth aesthetic, the researcher will divide the game into two categories angiotensin-converting enzyme player and Multiplayer. This is because that the enemy of both is different, and highly changes the dynamic of play. First, the Single Player, where there is a focus on the one against many. The computer does not use tactically superior moves, but focuses on overwhelming the player with numbers. T he atrocious guys hide in obviously tactical positions behind the counter, around the corner, against the wall, always facing the player.This creates an obstacle course that the player has to go through, and although is a challenge, can get monotonous and repetitive. In the multiplayer, there is more depth. Since other players online differ from one another, use different weapons and different tactics, this creates a dynamic that the player will require more skill to follow. The multiplayer in Call of Duty did not change much from game to game, if only in mechanics. In this way, it could be said that although challenge is a core aesthetic to the franchise, Call of Duty has already found its niche and no longer inescapably to change a large aspect of it.However it is still no progress, on the part of the developer. Insight would say that the challenge comes from the other players, and it would be formal to buy the new game if everyone is going to be playing it too. That being said , this is a special aesthetic where the game developer is not the one responsible for challenge, the player is. The Fifth Aesthetic Game as Social simulation The fifth aesthetic, fellowship, is any game that allows the player to work cooperatively with others (Portnow). In the Call of Duty franchise, this is present in both the single and multiplayer.In the single player, the player is in a sense, part of the team. He/she may even form a connection toward other members, especially when the main character they are playing as holds them in high regard. The pair of Alex stonemason and Frank Woods from the Black Ops series is comparable to a Han entirely and Chewbacca, and the player will cherish that bond. It is worth mentioning that the voice acting in Call of Duty is some of the best voice acting in the gaming industry, and this helps the player humanize the fictional characters in-game.In the multiplayer, as a switch side of the aesthetic challenge, bonds are formed in between t eam mates. Team work is always required for objective-based play, and for people with a good enough gaming set, people in game can converse to each other over the net. The players who experience this aesthetic most are people who enter the game as a group, and have friends with them to grapple the experience in. In this aspect, the game developer does not control much of it, and the players are responsible. For example, why would a person play Modern Warfare 3 when all of his/her friends are playing Black Ops 2?His/her friends are reason enough to but the new game. The Sixth Aesthetic Game as Uncharted Territory The sixth aesthetic is cracky. Any player who plays the game to see what was previously unknown is a player who plays for discovery (Portnow). Again, this can be divided into the single and multiplayer, as the aspect of discovery is different for both. For the single player, discovery is not a large role to play. There arent many things to unearth and most things about th e narrative are given to the player as a reward for beating the previous mission. This is true for the first three games, until Black Ops 2.With multiple endings, as well as the option to reset the story to a particular mission, the player was left with some sort of replay value the option to discover the alternate endings. This forced the player to do things differently to achieve them, and offered more depth. In the multiplayer, discovery comes through the form of a levelling system. Higher level players can use more things, and has access to more powerful guns and equipment. This made it so that the multiplayer experience was more of a journey than an arena, and kept the players interested longer.In a way, the multiplayer did not change from game to game. However, there is a significant improvement on the part of the single player in Black Ops 2. The Seventh Aesthetic Game as Self-Discovery The seventh aesthetic is defined as expression, or the ability of the players to express t hemselves through the game. In Call of Duty, this is limited to the multiplayer. In the single player, the player is thrust into the shoes of a fictional character and therefore does not express himself. Expression in the multiplayer however, comes from the Create your own Class system. In other words, load out.The player gets to choose the primary weapon, secondary, as well as buffs to their character by way of perks. Whether the player is the run-and-gun type, or the silent sniper, these are all forms of expression. In terms of expression as an aesthetic, the game itself does not improve. Expression is something that is player driven, and can only be helped by more options for customization. As this game does not offer more customization from game to game, it could be said that it did not improve. The Eighth Aesthetic Game as Past-time The eight aesthetic is called submission.This means that the player plays the game as a way to tune-out much like reading a book or watching TV doe s (Portnow). It is tight for the researcher to judge games on this aesthetic, seeing as the developers have no way to control this. People playing Black Ops 2 now, played Modern Warfare 2 before, and played Counter Strike even before that. Older gamers would be able to relate more games to their experience, and the researcher is speaking out of his own experience from playing first person shooters. Interestingly enough, the eighth aesthetic is aided not by the difference in games, but the similarity of them.People who have been playing the FPS as a genre for a long time would be able to have it off this aesthetic more when the new games holds more similarities to old ones. In this way, developers are aiding their players by keeping the game relatively standard. In this, the game could be said to be the same for all four instalments, and does not improve. Of the eight aesthetics discussed, six are actually controlled by the developer. Of those six, the franchise as a whole has been seen to improve in three. That is half of those supposedly developer-induced aesthetics. Because of this, the game is judged to be not over rated.Small or big, there have been changes to the franchise with respect to the last four instalments with regard to the aesthetics. Whether these changes actually merit the game being worthy of being purchased, is in the opinion of the buyer. But as said before, there are another two aesthetics which are not developer-controlled. Which are the fourth and fifth. The players aid each other in these aesthetics by playing the game itself, and people seeking rivalry must go where competition lies. However, as said before, these games at most times changed marginally, and whether this deserves a $60 hurt tag is the players choice.As a researcher, the game is sound, and it is apparent that a lot of work went into the world of these games. As a gamer, the researcher must implore other gamers to enquire quality from their games. We as a culture, a society who enjoys this form of media have to be specific with what we want from the game developers. Do some small, imperious changes to the system deserve our money? If the next game is really the previous one with better graphics, we should think about where we put our money and whether these games are worth buying. To conclude, Black Ops 2 picks up the slack of where the first three left off.Individually, these games deserve their standing, since all of them perform excellently in at least 4, maybe 5 aesthetics. As a whole, the franchise has found its niche. People are inherently intelligent, and will only buy when the price is right. It is the responsibility of the developers to improve, however their greatest responsibility will always be to satisfy the needs of the customers. Bibliography Ahearn, Nate. Call of Duty Black Ops Review. 9 November 2010. IGN. 10 January 2013. Bozon, Mark. Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2 Review. 10 November 2009. IGN. 0 January 2013. Gallegos, An thony. CALL OF DUTY BLACK OPS 2 REVIEW. 13 November 2012. IGN. 10 January 2013. . Call of Duty Modern Warfare 3 Review. 8 November 2011. IGN. 10 January 2013. Hunicke, Robin, Marc LeBlanc and Robert Zubek. MDA A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research. 2004. 3 January 2013. . Portnow, James. pleonastic Credits Aesthetics of Play. 17 October 2012. Extra Credits. 3 January 2013. Ryckert, Dan. Call of Duty Black Ops II. 13 November 2012. gameinformer. 10 January 2013. Sicart, Miguel. Defining Game Mechanics. December

Ban Cell Phones While Driving

Ban Cell Phones While brainish Almost each(prenominal) American has one. Some multitude routine them strictly for business slice others strictly for leisure. Most of us enforce them for both. They be always at our side ready to be answe blushing(a), receive schoolbook messages, check email, or modify our Facebook status. Cellsounds read almost become a necessity in society. People regularly engage in a wide mixing of multitasking activities when they atomic number 18 behind the wheel. Data from the 2000 U. S. census indicates that drivers spend an average of 25. bit each day commuting to work, and at that place is a growing beguile in trying to make the time spent on the pathway more than productive (Reschovsky, 2004). Unfortunately, this leads to drivers being distracted on the road. I was a victim of an throw ca physical exercised by a distracted driver on the tele earpiece. I was in a putting greening lot intimately to park and a woman backed into me era she was talking on the think. She prof practice sessionly apologized and said she didnt see me. It wasnt that she couldnt see me she wasnt paying management because she was on the phone. Luckily, no one was hurt and there was minimal damage to my car.Its just annoying and disheartening that mess can be so careless. Cellphone use darn crusade needs to be banned in order to protect drivers and pedestrians alike. This isnt just my personalized opinion on the matter. The National Transportation galosh Board (NTSB) recommends that nominates toban drivers from any non-emergency use of carrell phones and other electronic plaits that arent built into their automobile (Alhers, 2011). It also called on wireless companies to create engine room that would disable the functions of these portable electronic devices within reach of the driver when a vehicle is in motion (Alhers, 2011).The recommendation came out of an investigation of a 2010 pickup truck-school bus pileup in Missouri even tually year that killed twain people and injured 35. The investigation found that the pickup driver who caused the accident sent 11 text messages in the 11 minutes trail up to the accident, including some just before impact. The NTSB lacks the authority to impose regulations, tho its safety recommendations are highly regarded and have led to many state and federal laws and regulations (NTSB 2011). On Oct. , 2009, President Barack Obama issued an executive order outlaw the use of text messaging while impulsive for federal government employees on official business or while using government-supplied equipment. He said, text messaging causes drivers to take their eyes off the road and at least one hand off the steering wheel, endangering both themselves and others (Obama, 2009). Texting while drive is banned in 37 states and the District of Columbia. 30 states ban all cell phone use for beginning drivers.Ten states prohibit all take hold cell phone use while campaign however, no states before long ban the use of hands-free phones while ride. Most people dont put Bluetooth or Sync in their cars anyway because its too expensive. Talking on the phone, hands-free or non, puts the drivers focus on the conversation and not what is going on around them. Its impossible to accurately grass how many car accidents nationwide are cell-phone related, but according to the discussion section of Transportation, distracted cause killed 3,092 people in the United States in 2010. David L.Strayer, a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Utah, stated the quest in their Summer 2006 study comparing cell-phone use and intoxication while madcap It is now well established that cell phone use impairs the drive performance of younger adults. For example, drivers are more likely to omit critical traffic signals (traffic lights, a vehicle braking in front of the driver, and so on ), slower to respond to the signals that they do detect, and more likel y to be knotted in rear-end collisions when they are conversing on a cell phone.In addition, tear down when participants conduct their gaze at objects in the driving environment, they often let on to see them when they are talking on a cell phone because attention has been directed away from the external environment and toward an internal, cognitive context associated with the phone conversation (p. 382) Strayer and his colleagues, with respect to traffic safety, found that the impairments associated with cell phone drivers may be as great as those commonly ascertained with intoxicated drivers.The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Ad Council have launched the new Stop the Texts. Stop the Wrecks. This is a public assist advertising public service announcement campaign nationwide. All of the PSAs direct audiences to StopTextsStopWrecks. org, a new campaign website where teens and young adults can find facts virtually the impact of texting while drivi ng, and tips for how to curb the behavior. The website also has an area where individuals can placement and share their antecedents to stop texting and driving on Facebook.The NHTSA also reported that buff projects in Syracuse, New York, and Hartford, Connecticut, produced significant reductions in distracted driving by combining stepped-up ticketing with these high-profile public education campaigns. Before and after each enforcement wave, NHTSA researchers ascertained cellphone use by drivers and conducted surveys at drivers license offices in the 2 cities. They found that in Syracuse, hand-held cellphone use and texting declined by a third. In Hartford, there was a 57 percent drop in hand-held phone use, and texting behind the wheel dropped by nearly three-quarters (Wellenbach, 2011).There are many contrasts against banning cell phone use infringes on the personal rights of motorists. Receiving a cell phone traffic ticket may negatively reflect on your driver record and can increase your insurance premiums. Those opposed to the ban feel its impossible to enforce because a police officer can mistake a driver for texting mortal when they are really changing a song on their MP3 player. other counterargument is that holding a conversation on a cell phone while driving is no more distracting than being engaged with a passenger or rowdy kids in the back seat, eating fast-flying food or messing around with the radio.Motorists know that using a cell phone while driving is distracting and should refrain from doing so. Another argument against banning cell phones is the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Most GPSs displays third-dimensional renderings of virtual surroundings. At least 10 states that ban texting while driving offer some type of service that allows motorists to get information about traffic tie-ups, road conditions or emergencies via Twitter (DeMillo, 2009). There is also an argument to implement hands free devices in all motor vehicles .Enforcing such(prenominal) advanced engineering science to be built would be extremely expensive. This technology, underlying speaker phones or no use of cell phone if driving over 30 miles per hour is not cheap. It is not cheap for the manufacturers or for the customers. The average prices of cars would rise, and if there are be technical errors, it would cost more to repair the car. Assume that the United States did enforce this law upon manufacturers in their country. What if mortal drove to the United States from neighbor countries, where cars are not equipped with this technology?Should those drivers from the neighbor countries, hence, be allowed to use cell phones? No. The best topic to do is having a strict law, banning cellphone while driving until such advanced equipment in cars becomes basic technology, and fairly priced. In a survey I conducted revealed that 80% of drivers between the ages of 16 to 24 use a cell phone while driving. 90% percent of 16 to 24 year olds have been on the road and noticed drivers curve and talking/texting on the phone while driving. My research indicates that only 20% of drivers 55 and over admitted they use a cell phone while driving.This shows that younger people are more at risk to be involved in some sort of collision or accident. The last question of the survey was have you ever been at a red light and have someone honked at you while you were at a red light looking at phone? Even though the survey was anonymous I dont think people wanted to admit that this has happened to them. Only 40% of all who took the survey answered yes to this question. I think if had a larger survey pool my information would have supported my argument further. Here is a graph of the results of the question bemuse you used a cell phone while driving some(prenominal) technology start-ups entrust release new products for phones that can detect when a car is in motion and automatically log incoming calls and texts a great deal as a per sonal assistant would. All the products have supply that allow both incoming and outgoing calls during emergencies. The following products are work available to reduce driver distraction. The first one is Key2SafeDriving. Parents can personate up a password-protected profile that wont allow calls or texts when a Bluetooth device detects that the car is in motion. Next, there is Aegis Mobility Drive Assist.This is downloaded software will use a phones GPS to determine whether it is in a moving vehicle, then log incoming calls and texts, and respond with a message that youre driving. And finally the least restrictive of these three products, ZoomSafer, is downloadable software that lets you dictate text messages and updates to social-networking sites while youre driving (Cruz 2009). This is similar to the talk-to-text program that my Droid phone has. I have tried to use it while driving and it hasnt been too successful. I have to vim a button that records what I want to say and th en listens. The legal age of the time the words are totally wrong and Im more distracted because I have to go back and wipe out everything. I know technology will evolve and create a safe way to communicate while operating a vehicle. The march from studies showing the negative effects of cellphone use while driving is overwhelming. People need to be less concerned with emails, social networks, and texting and be more focused on the road. There is no simple solution to get everyone to agree or follow the rules if such as ban was put into action.It will take a long time to hold up their right of cellphone privileges, but the outcome is worth the sacrifice. References Ahlers, Mike. (2011, celestial latitude 13). NTSB recommends full ban on use of cell phones while driving. business line News Network. Retrieved from http//articles. cnn. com/2011-12-13/us/us_ntsb-c ell-phone-ban_1_smart-phones-texting-pickup-truck-driver? _s=PMUS Cruz, Gilbert. (2009, August 24). Distracted Driving Should Talking, Texting Be Banned? Time Magazine. Retrieved from http//www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1916291-1,00. hypertext mark-up language DeMillo, A. (2009, Sept 19).Mixed Messages on Texting and Driving. Retrieved from Associated Press and Fox News website http//www. foxnews. com/us/2009/09/19/states-send-mixed-message-texting-driving/ National Transportation Safety Board. (2011). No call, no text, no update behind the wheel NTSB calls for nationwide ban on PEDs while driving Press release. Retrieved from http//www. ntsb. gov/news/2011/111213. html Obama, Barack. (2009, October 1). Executive Order 15313. Retrieved from http//www. whitehouse. gov/the-press-office/executive-order-federal-leadership-reducing-text-messaging-while-driving Strayer, D.L. & Drews, F. A. (2006). A likeness of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 381391. Reschovsky, C. (2004). jaunt to work 2000, Census 2000 brief. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from http//www. censu s. gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-33. pdf Wellenbach, P. (2011, Dec. 8) More American drivers are texting while driving despite additional legal measures. New York casual News. Retrieved from http//www. nydailynews. com/news/national/american-drivers-texting-driving-additional-legal-measures-article-1. 988991commentpostform

Sunday, February 24, 2019

School Life: What I Learned

As I look back, there are multiple primer coat I am who I am today, still when I gauge about it changing to a public groom my junior category re whollyy had a huge impact on my life and who I am today. It has make me independent and impudence of myself, become more conglomerate in aim and learned how to balance my time. Also, switch schools, I ease up experienced a huge diversity of pot. My first two eld of spunky school, I attended St.Pius X, there I had gone to school ith all the same tidy sum I had get laidn my whole life. Pius was a really small school and very easy to adapt to. later on my sophomore year, I just knew something wasnt right with me. I felt very sheltered and I felt like I wasnt my own person, I felt myself being like everyone else. Knowing myself and what I wanted in life, I knew St. Pius was no longer the school for me. My secondary year, I switched to North Kansas City, knowing few people going in. personnel casualty through something like tha t, I had no friends and no one to trust myself.I had no fear going in. Being able to start solely over with no friends and no one to trust or go to I developed so much confidence in myself and knew I would adapt quickly. Still to this day, even with the close relationships I live with made with people, I am still very independent. I make positive(predicate) no matter what goes on in my life to take cathexis of all of my responsibilities and this quality will come in handy in college with everything I will experience and will continue to stay successful. To wait on myself adapt to the change, I became as involved as I possibly could.I joined clubs, did volunteer fix and also played three sports all while maintaining a job. Being this involved I was nervous I would become overwhelmed and thought it would be easy to loose my focus with academics but I knew that I couldnt let that happen. My grades really improved and I was able to manage all of my activities and always get my sc hool work make. This will definitely benefit me in college because I know that I will be as involved as possible and that i will still maintain the motivation to get ll my work done and take care of every single of my responsibilities I develop in college. North Kansas City is not however a bigger school that I am used to, but also a very diverse school. We represent people from about thirty six opposite countries. I have developed close relationships with people from places I have never even heard of. At North Kansas City high school there are so many opportunities, every man-to-man person seems like they have found comfort there. I know I have found many things to be involved in.When I get in college I know there will be people all over the world and for intimately it will be a huge culture shock. Being surrounded by people with different backgrounds and all walks of life and my experience with going to one of the most diverse schools in the country will help me understand pe ople and where they are all coming from. As much as I miss my old friends and old life, in the end I am so happy with the change. The self trusting, time management skills and experience to a very diverse school is what is best for me in the future, not only in college but in my career after college as well.

Bandura Theory of Social Learning

attainment is a br another(prenominal)ly process and we discipline with inter drillion with others in our day to day life. Prior to 1960, theories of reading were heavily influenced by deportmentistic and cognitivist theories. But Albert Banduras well-disposed knowledge Theory posits that tribe chink from one a nonher via poster, imitation, and amazeing. The social encyclopedism possible action has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive attaining theories because it includes anxiety, memory, and motivation.As a government issue it is sometimes called social cognitive nurture. While rooted in many an(prenominal) of the basic concepts of traditional nurture supposition, Bandura believed that top strengthener could not bank note for all images of breeding. His theory added a social element, arguing that people burn down learn new information and behaviors by watching other people known as data-based learning (or mock uping). The social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and determineing the behaviors, attitudes and emotional reactions of others. Thus it focuses on learning by expression and imitate. Social learning theory talks almost how twain environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior. It focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers that people learn from one another.In Social Context Behavioral factors + Cognitive factors - Social scholarshipMeaning jibe to Albert Bandura (1977), In social learning theory, behavior is learned from the environment through with(predicate) the process of observational learning. Social learning is the process in which case-by-cases line up the behavior of others and its consequences, and modify their own behavior accordingly.Banduras theory of social learning Basic Social Learning Concepts There are trey core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. 1) Learning through observation 2) Intrinsic Reinforcement 3) Change in behavior is not necessary for learning 1) Learning through Observation (Observational Learning) In 1961, Bandura demo the now-famous Bobo razzing experiments. The Bobo doll is a child-sized inflatable doll with a dull bottom that causes it to pop back up after being knocked down. In the first stage of these studies, preschool-aged children were divided into three convocations one group that discover an adult ( feign) behaving aggressively towards the Bobo doll (punching, kicking, striking with a mallet, yelling), another group that sight the adult bleeding peacefully, and a control group. Each instrumentalist viewed their assigned scenario individually.Later, the child was allowed to play independently in the play needion which contained a variety of aggressive and non-aggressive toys, including the Bobo doll. Participants acts of verbal and physical aggression toward the Bobo doll were then recorded. Results revealed sig nificant group differences, such(prenominal) that children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to imitate what they had seen and be ingest aggressively toward the doll. Bandura argued that the results supported that children could quickly acquire novel behaviors through the process of observation and imitation, and this occurred even in the absence of any kind of reinforcement.In a 1963, Bandura demonstrated that children imitated aggressive behavior witnessed on video, in addition to live observation, and children also imitated aggressive behaviors enacted by a cartoon character. (In his famous Bobo doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people.The children in Banduras studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.)Social learning theor y draws heavily on the concept of modeling, Bandura identified three types of models1) Live model An actual person is demonstrating the desired behavior.2) Verbal instructional Model An individual explains and describes the desired behavior in details.3) Symbolic Model molding occurs by means of the media including movies, television, Internet, literature and radio.Stimuli can be either real or fictional characters. Mental States are consequential to learning (IntrinsicReinforcement) An additional study, promulgated in 1965, showed that witnessing the model being punished for the aggressive behavior decreased the likelihood that children would imitate the behavior, a process he referred to as vicarious reinforcement. At the same time, Bandura noted that internal rewards such as pride, satisfaction, sense impression of accomplishment also influence the learning which he described as intrinsic reinforcement.Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behaviour While beha viorist believed that learning led to a stable change in behaviour, social learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviours.Key Principles of social learning theory 1) Learning is not purely behavioral rather, it is a cognitive process that takes consecrate in a social context.2) Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the consequences of the behavior (vicarious reinforcement).3) Learning involves observation, extraction of information from those observations, and making decisions about the performance of the behavior (observational learning or modeling). Thus, learning can occur without an observable change in behavior.4) Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning.5) The learner is not a passive liquidator of information. science, environment, and behavior all mutually influence each other (reciprocal determinism).The Modeling Process Not all observed behaviors are eff ectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps essential also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process 1) Attention I Never seen or knackting this BeforeIn order to learn, you need to be paying maintenance. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. 2) Retention I Figured Out What I have to doThe ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a add up of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 3) Reproduction Why Not Do It? It Worked Out Fine for others Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement. 4) Motivation This action is large(p) me satisfactionFinally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be passing effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra trust for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day. Vicarious reinforcement behavior is acceptableVicarious punishment behavior is unacceptable Implications Learning by observation (models) students learn simply by observing other people. Modeling provides an resource to shaping for didactics new behaviors. Instead of using sha ping, which is operant conditioning, modeling can provide a faster, more efficient means for teaching new behavior. To promote effective modeling a teacher must make sure that the four essential conditions exist attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. Cognition plays a role in learningLearning can occur without change in behavior Teachers and parents must model arrogate behaviors and take care that they get dressedt model inappropriate ones. Teachers should expose students to a variety of other models. Students must believe that they are capable of accomplishing school tasks. Teachers should help students set realistic expectations for their academic accomplishments. Self-regulation techniques provide effective methods for improving behavior. Describing the consequences of behavior increases appropriate behavior and decreases inappropriate ones. ExamplesAdvertisements/TV commercials are the most common examples of Social Learning Theory. We observe (watch) them, and then copy them. Commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular wash will make us popular and win the admiration of fascinating people. Depending upon the component processes involved (such as attention or motivation), we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised. vocabulary learning is another common example of Social Learning Theory. A student tries to imitate or mimic his/her teacher while the teacher demonstrates.Conclusion In addition to influencing other psychologists, Banduras social learning theory has had important implication in the field of education. The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura (1925) has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. Today, both teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theo ry.Social learning theory posits that knowledge acquisition is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement. In addition to the observation of behavior, learning also occurs through the observation of rewards and punishments, a process known as of vicarious reinforcement.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

The Necessity Of Computer Security

When the first electronic figurers emerged from university and military laboratories in the late 1940s and previous(predicate) 1950s, visionaries proclaimed them the harbingers of a second industrial revolution that would trans motley business, judicature and industry. But few laymen, even if they were awargon of the machines, could see the connection. Experts too, were sceptical. Not merely were computers huge, expensive, mavin-of-a-kind devices designed for performing abstruse scientific and military calculations, such as cracking codes and calculations missile trajectories, they were besides extremely difficult to handle.Now, it is clear that computers atomic number 18 non only here to stay, exclusively they have a weighed down effect on high society as well. As John McCarthy, prof of Computer Science at Stanford University, speculated in 1966 The computer gives signs of becoming the contemporary counter tell apart of the steam engine that brought on the industrial revol ution one and only(a) that is still gathering momentum and whose true nature had yet to be seen. Todays applications of computers argon vast.They are use to run mean(a) household appliances such as televisions and microwaves, to being tools in the workplaces through forge processing, spreadsheets, and graphics software, to unning monumental tasks such as being the heart and psyche of the nations tax processing department, and managing the project timetables of the Space Shuttle. It is obvious that the computer is flat and always will be inexorably linked to our lives, and we have no choice still to accept this technology and learn how to harness its contribute authorisation.With any progressing technology, an unauthorized application eject almost be erect for it. A computer could and has been used for theft and fraud for example, as a database and manager of illegal activities such as drug trafficking and pornography. How ever so, we must not just trade the harmful ap plications of the computer, but also take into draw the good that they have caused. When society embraced the computer technology, we have to treat this as an extension of what we already have at hand.This means that some problems that we had onward the computer era may also arise now, in the form where computers are an accessory to a crime. wiz of the problems that society has faced ever since the dawn of civilization is secrecy. The issue of privacy on the Internet has arise many arguments for and against having it. The issue of privacy has gotten to the oint where the organization of the United States has placed a bill promoting a single chip to encrypt every last(predicate) privy material on the Internet. Why is privacy so important? conceal confidential material from intruders does not necessarily mean that what we keep sequestered it illegal. Since ancient times, people have trusted couriers to carry their meats. We seal taboo messages in a envelope when sending mail through the postal service. Using computer and encrypting programs to transfer electronic messages securely is not diametrical from sending a letter the old-fashioned way. This paper will construe he modern order actings of encrypting messages and analyse why Phil Zimmerman created an extremely powerful civil encipherment program, cal guide the PGP, for Pretty Good Privacy.In particular, by focusing on secret writing, which was earlier intended for military use, this paper will examine just how clear it is to conclude why giving civilians a military-grade encrypting program such as the PGP may be dangerous to subject field security. Therefore, with any type of newfangled technology, this paper will argue that the application of cryptography for civilian economic consumptions is not just a right, but is also a necessity. Increasingly in todays era of computer technology, not only banks but also businesses and government agencies are turning to encryption.Computer security experts consider it best and most practical way to protect computer data from unauthorized disclosure when transmitted and even when stored on a disk, tape, of the charismatic strip of a credit card. Two encryption systems have led the way in the modern era. One is the single- chance on system, in which data is some(prenominal) encrypted and rewriteed with the same come upon, a sequence of octad numbers, each between 0 and 127. The new(prenominal) is a 2-key ystem in this address to cryptography, a pair of mathematically complementary keys, each containing as many as 200 digits, are used for encryptions and decryption.In contrast with ciphers of earlier generations, where security depended in part on concealing the algorithm, confidentiality of a computer encrypted message hinges solely on the secrecy of the keys. Each system is thought to encrypt a message so inscrutably that the step-by-step mathematical algorithms can be made human race with divulge compromising security. The single key system, named the Data Encryption Standard stilboestrol for short as designed in 1977 as the official method for protecting unclassified computer data in agencies of the American federal government.Its evolution began in 1973 when the US National Bureau of Standards, responding to unexclusive continue about the confidentiality of computerized information outside military and diplomatic channels, invited the submission of data-encryption techniques as the first step towards an encryption scheme intended for humans use. The method selected by the bureau as the stilboestrol was developed by IBM researchers. During encryption, the DES algorithm divides a message into pulley-blocks f eight characters, then enciphers them one after another.Under control of the key, the letters and numbers of each block are scrambled no fewer than 16 times, resulting in eight characters of ciphertext. As good as the DES is, obsolescence will almost surely overtake it. The life span of encryption systems tends to be short the senior(a) and more widely used a cipher is, the higher the potential payoff if it is cracked, and the greater the likelihood that someone has succeeded. An entirely different approach to encryption, called the 2-key or populace- key system, simplifies the problem of key distribution and management.The approach to cryptography eliminates the need for subscribers to share keys that must be kept confidential. In a public-key system, each subscriber has a pair of keys. One of them is the so-called public key, which is freely available to anyone who wishes to communicate with its owner. The other is a secret key, know only to its owner. Though either key can be used to encipher or to decipher data encrypted with its mate, in most instances, the public key is employed for encoding, and the private key for decoding.Thus, anyone can send a secret message to anyone else by using the addressees public key to encrypt ts contents. But only the reci pient of the message can leave sense of it, since only that person has the private key. A public key cryptosystem is called the PGP, for Pretty Good Privacy. Designed by Phil Zimmerman, this program is freely distributed for the purpose of giving the public the knowledge that whatever communications they pass, they can be sure that it is practically unbreakable. PGP generates a public and private key for the drug user using the RSA technique.The data is then encrypted and decrypted with the IDEA algorithm which is similar to the DES, but the work factor to decode the encrypted message by brute orce is a great deal higher than what the DES could provide. The reason why the RSA is used only when generating the keys is that the RSA takes a very long time to encrypt an entire document, where using the RSA on the keys takes a mere fraction of the time. At this time, Zimmerman is bing charged by the US government for his effort in developing the PGP.The government considers encryption as a weapon, and they have established regulations controlling or prohibiting the export of munitions. Since the PGP is a powerful encryption program, it is considered and can be used as a powerful weapon and may be a threat to national security. On the Internet, it is clear that many people all over the introduction are against the US governments effort on hold the PGPs encryption capabilities, and their reason is that the ban infringes on the peoples right to privacy.The PGP must not be treated only as a weapon, for it contains analogies that are not used in wartime. One of them is authentication. The two-key cryptosystem is designed with authentication in mind Using someones public key to encrypt enables only the owner of the private key to decrypt the same message. In the real world, we use our own tinge to ground out identity in signing heques or contracts. There exists retina scanners that survey the blood vessels in out eyes, as well as fingerprint analysis devices.The se use our physical characteristics to prove our identity. A digital signature generated by a public key cryptosystem is much harder to counterfeit because of the mathematics of factoring which is an advantage over conventional methods of tests for out identity. Another doctrine of analogy the PGP has with the real world is the need for security. Banks and corporations employ a trusted courier in the form of an armoured truck or a deem to transfer sensitive documents or valuables.However, this is expensive for civilian purposes, and the PGP provides the same or better security when securing civilian information. While many argue that restrain the PGPs abilities are against the peoples right to privacy, the PGP must also be seen as a necessity as we enter the learning Age. There is currently little or no practical and sleazy way to secure digital information for civilians, and the PGP is an answer to this problem.Computer privacy must not be treated differently than any other method to make private any documents. Rather, we must consider the computer as a tool and se it as an extension of societys evolution. Clearly the techniques we employ for computer privacy such as encryption, secure transfers and authentication closely mirrors past efforts at privacy and non-criminal efforts. The government is putting more pressure against the distribution of PGP outside of the United States.One of their main reasons was that since it is freely distributed and thus can be modified in such a way that even the vast computational resources of the US government cannot break the PGPs secured message. The government could now reason that the PGP can provide criminal rganizations a means of secure communications and warehousing of their activities, and thus make the law enforcements job much harder in tracking criminals down and proving them guilty.Also, we must never forget one of out basic human rights one that many laid their lives for, is exemption. We have the freed om to do anything we wish that is within the law. The government is now attempting to pass a bill promoting a single algorithm to encrypt and decrypt all data that belongs to its citizens. A multitude of people around the world are opposed to this concept, arguing that it is against their freedom and their privacy.