Thursday, November 28, 2019
Bartleby The Scrivener In democratic ages men rarely sacrifice themselves for another, but they show a general compassion for all the human race. One never sees them inflict pointless suffering, and they are glad to relieve the sorrows of others when they can do so without much trouble to themselves. They are not disinterested, but they are gentle. - Alexis De Tocqueville (www.cybernation.com) Compassion is an innate quality that is found within human nature, and is expressed to those in the form of a helping hand to people who are financially and emotionally troubled. However, each individual may have a different limit towards the amount of compassion that one can show to another being. In Herman Melville's story, "Bartleby, the Scrivener", Melville is showing the reader that each individual does have a limit, when it comes to expressing compassion towards other beings. Melville also shows that this limit is different for each individual, when he talks about how each of the characters interact with Bartleby. The story of "Bartleby, the Scrivener" begins with the narrator identifying himself as a man who is "filled with a profound conviction that the easiest way of life is best". This very attitude towards life in general, suggests that the narrator cannot be too compassionate towards other beings because showing compassion and providing support is hard work emotionally and physically. To be compassionate, one must be able to understand the inner workings of the unfortunate soul, so that one can help fix the problem. Thus, the narrator does not have the experience or the spontaneity to help others because all who know him, consider him to be "an eminently safe man" (2330). However, one must note that as the story progresses, the narrator does push his boundaries towards helping Bartleby, but ultimately fails because he does not take the time to understand Bartleby. There is no doubt that the narrator is a compassionate person because he puts up with the antics of his employees. One of his employees is an old man named Turkey, who handles himself well in the morning, but in the afternoon becomes insolent. Any other person would have fired Turkey, when he becomes insolent towards his fellow workers and clients, but the narrator generally leaves him alone. One can conclude that the narrator is weak, and being a ?safe' man, he decides to let things be the same in order to prevent a conflict, but this is an incorrect conclusion. The narrator could have fired Turkey, which would have prevented a conflict as well as resolving the issue regarding Turkey's attitude, but the narrator chooses to keep Turkey. Although one can say that the narrator is compassionate, one must also take into account the extent of his compassion. In the scene where Bartleby refuses to help examine the paper, the narrator backs away from a confrontation. He says, "I looked at him steadfastly. His face was leanly composed; his gray eye dimly calm. Not a wrinkle of agitation rippled in him" (2336). The narrator does not know how to handle the situation because he could not find any human qualities within Bartleby. Therefore, he plays it safe and avoids the confrontation by proceeding to other matters. This scene helps show the narrator's limits because by playing it safe, he is not helping Bartleby, but instead delays the inevitable confrontation. Thus, one can argue incorrectly that the narrator has a weak character, when in reality he is looking at the world with a different perspective, and therefore is not able to understand the needs of Bartleby. It is easy to see that the narrator is a compassionate man, although many would argue that he is weak. He allows his employees to be themselves, and tries to reign them in when they go too far. Thus, when Bartleby refuses to help him and the others examine the documents, he avoids a confrontation. However, the others are quick to judge Bartleby. This is seen when Nippers says, "I think I should kick him out of the office" (2337) while Turkey says, "shall I go and black his eyes?" (2339). Neither of these characters attempt to understand Bartleby, and if they had their way, they would have fired him immediately. This shows that the limit of their compassion towards Bartleby is very short, and it also allows the reader to come to the conclusion that the narrator is indeed an extraordinary man, whose limit towards helping Bartleby exceeds that of many people. A compassionate person is a person who understands the strengths and weaknesses of
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How to Use In, An or Auf Properly Although German is a straightforward language once you learn the rules, you cant always directly translate every word from English. In fact, the more you study some words, the more confusing they may become. Three German prepositions, in particular, can be tricky for beginners: in, an and auf.Ã What Is a Preposition? A preposition is a word that is typically paired with a noun (or pronoun, like he or she) that helps you understand that words relationship to another part of the sentence. For example, prepositions can refer to the nouns position in space or time. Like put your feetÃ underÃ the table, or go shoppingÃ afterÃ class. But many English prepositions have different meanings. Under can be below, but it can also mean less than. Some prepositions are colloquial or you just have to memorize them, like get down with.Ã The same goes for German. You can memorize the meanings of the prepositions, but not all will be a direct translation of the English counterpart.Ã These are all two-way prepositions, meaning the noun/pronoun that follows thisÃ prepositionÃ will be conjugated in the accusative (if it is used to express motion/action, like I walk into the store) or dative (if it is used to express a location or position, like I stand in the street). In English, the preposition does not change the noun/pronoun it precedes.Ã In Means: in, into, to Examples: Ich stehe in der StraÃÅ¸e. (I stand in the street.) Die Frau ist in der Universitt. (The woman is in the university, as in she is physically inside the university building. If you want to say you are enrolled in the university, you say, an derÃ Universitt, as in at the university. See below.)Ã An Means: at, to, up next toÃ Examples: Ich sitze an dem Tisch. (I am sitting at the table.) Die Frau istÃ an derÃ Tankstelle. (The woman is at the gas station, as in she is literally standing up next to the vertical gas pump. It can be helpful to think about a side-by-side, vertical encounter to remember when to use an as in up next to.)Ã Auf Means: on, on top of Examples: Die Backerei ist auf der HauptstraÃÅ¸e. (The bakery is on the main street.) Die Frau istÃ aufÃ der Bank. (The woman is on the bench, as in she is literally sitting on top of the horizontal bench. A horizontal encounter is often key for auf.)Ã Other Considerations Some verbs come standard with a preposition. Think about hang out or hang up in English; the preposition is an important component of the verb that actually changes the meaning of it.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Outline the polices that enable older people to remain at home as much is posible - Essay Example The objective of dignity to elders can be achieved only if the policies emphasise the concept of enabling older people to remain in a homely environment as much as possible, to usher in the safety and general welfare of senior citizens. The UK has been a pioneer in drafting many such policies that seek better avenues to channelize appropriate alternatives and resources for the elderly people, as discussed below. Though the concept of taking care of the elderly has existed even in the earlier civilizations, in the form of shelter for the old and community care centres, the idea of specific policies and laws to govern them began to manifest their presence from the beginning of the 19th century. The succeeding years after Second World War (WWII) saw the advent of demographic changes with a sharp rise in life expectancy and fall of fertility rates, with an unprecedented increase in the population of older people. The modern welfare state carried forward the policies and laws for the old and aged and institutionalized them. The prevailing Ã¢â¬Å"Poor LawÃ¢â¬ (Public Assistance following Local Government Act, 1929) (Thane 2009) where power was designated to public assistance committees of local council has given way in the 70s, 80s and subsequent years to the present policies, the focus shifting to enabling elderly peope to remain and be cared for at their homes. The spotlight being on the need for older people to stay at home for as long as possible (Department of Health, 1989), the White Paper on Community Care (1989) discussed about the society deliberating to see the roles of State, community, families and individuals in the rehabilitation and development of Ã¢â¬Å"independence, self fulfilment and participation (of elder) with assurance of care and dignity of who are most frail and vulnerableÃ¢â¬ (Leeson 2003). The resultant NHS and Community Care act-1990 has encouraged the development of community care provisions and implementation where present policies for older and disabled people should promote healthy independence, more carers, modernize and integrate service, provision of individual needs centred services, a feeling of belonging in the community, and a sense of money value. Ã¢â¬Å"Such policies rely high on availability of unpaid, informal typical family care from inside the communityÃ¢â¬ (Harper and Leeson, 2002) and Ã¢â¬Å"current service models of distribution of specific factors in existing family careÃ¢â¬ (Leeson, 2004). Since the 90s, these policies and laws have undergone a sea change, with revisions and modifications of existing policies and besides implementing to new measures seeking to help community care, like Ã¢â¬Å"Disability Living Allowance from 1992Ã¢â¬â¢; the Carers (Recognition and Services) Act, 1995; the Mental Health (Patients in the Community) Act, 1995; the Disability Discrimination Act, 1995; the Community Care (Direct Payments) Act, 1996Ã¢â¬ (House of Commons Health Committee: Social Care 2008-09) etc which have enabled the local authorities to make payments to disabled people to assist them in buying community services according to their needs. The
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Not using plastic grocery bags - Research Paper Example Such matter is non-biodegradable when disposed in the environment because it does not break down, dissolve, or rust at any timeframe. The bags could also be made from biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid derived from Lactic acid. The amount of plastic that the world consumes has steadily risen through the past years due to increased industrialization (Freinkel, 2011, p.7). Attribute to success Due to the excessive environmental degradation through the constant use of plastic grocery bags, other alternative measures were incorporated in order to reduce environmental pollution. Use of paper bags made from synthetic natural paper for carrying of goods from one point to the other. Such papers are biodegradable, can easily dissolve, and they are destroyed by water hence causing no harm to the environment and the living organisms. The governmental legislation policies on plastics ensured that there was a reduced production of plastic bags until there was a total ban on plastics, this led to decrease in the demand, and use of the plastics, and hence the adoption of alternative means for carrying goods. Increased production and introduction of biodegradable bags into the market at a manageable cost in the first place promoted a quick adoption of such carriage materials, which were convenient to carry and use. The national environmental management authority (NEMA) giving out stern policies with respect to using plastic bags and the hazards caused by carrying goods in them promoted a change of heart to reduce the health hazards and risks coming with the constant use of plastics. Challenges The other bags used for carrying goods are expensive compared to the price of plastics, because they are made of expensive synthetic materials. Such bags are not as durable and tough as plastic bags, which are made of combination of tougher material. These other synthetic bags cannot be used to cover and safely store certain contents unlike plastics, which could be used to cover cert ain contents. It takes a lengthy period to adapt using other paper bags after the drastic decline of using plastics. The plastics were available in a variety of sizes to accommodate numerous goods, but the introduction of other paper bags in limited sizes has impacted the way a variety of goods are carried and sometimes extra costs are incurred purchasing more than one paper bag for carrying goods that would fit within one plastic bag. Such biodegradable bags are not readily available in the rural settings because of poor communication channels that would enable effective transportation and shipment of such consignments to be available to the consumers. Environmental impact Following the decline of using plastic grocery bags, there has been a variety of impacts to the environment. Since plastics litter the environment, there has been reduced distribution of plastic litter (misplaced solid waste) within the environmental surrounding; soil profile and aeration have been improved due t o limited non-biodegradable plastic material. There has been reduced water pollution and infections to animals and human beings caused by the consumption of unpalatable plastic material, and air pollution caused by the burning of plastics, which eventually produce chlorofluorocarbon elements that contaminate the air, and causes global
Monday, November 18, 2019
Examination the differences between the ethical and conventional investment mutual funds - Research Paper Example This led to investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ social awareness; thus, the concept was to make sure that any form of investment followed ethical criteria. This led to the creation of ethically managed investment funds that have been steadily increasing and represent a large amount of money invested in a country like the United States. About 12% of funds that are being professionally managed are part of a socially responsible mutual fund or of other private portfolios. The fact that there is a very large amount of money invested in this manner has led researchers to attempt to answer the question whether these ethical investment mutual funds are more expensive to run and perform better than the other conventional investment mutual funds. Initial research shows that the ethical investment mutual funds do not invest as widely as the conventional ones. However, there is no major difference between the amounts of money earned by the ethical investment mutual funds when compared to the conventional ones (D iltz, 1995). Statistics also showed that there is no difference in the areas that the two types of investment mutual funds tend to invest in (Sauer, 1997). Most of the evidence necessary to make the important comparisons between the two types of investment mutual funds is mostly found in the United States and the United Kingdom. Additionally, there is no pattern of investment that can conclusively determine the differences between the two types of investment mutual funds. However, when the ethical investment mutual funds are compared according to investment in small companies with the other non-ethical ones, a bias is found (Luther & Matatko, 1994). It showed that the ethical funds were the better performing and earned more than the conventional ones in these small companies. A different study that was conducted by Mallin et al. (1995) attempted to erase the problem of the benchmark that was set on the small companies and the investment by the ethical investment mutual funds. In thi s study, they considered the size of the ethical fund and the date that it was created. A method of statistics referred to as the JensenÃ¢â¬â¢s alpha was used to analyze their findings. They concluded that ethical funds outperform the other funds using this criterion. The small cap bias that was cited by Luther and Matatko (1994) and that Mallin et al. (1995) attempted to correct led to further research by Luther and Matatko which concluded that using the size of the fund and applying the 2-factor JensenÃ¢â¬â¢s alpha method; there was no conclusive evidence that reflected a difference in the financial performance of both investment mutual funds and that the small cap bias still existed. The study of the differences between the two types of investment mutual funds was complicated at this point. It was further complicated when Dibartolomeo (1996) and Kurtz (1997) claimed that the better performance of the ethical investment mutual funds was due to Ã¢â¬Å"large-cap growth exposures Ã¢â¬ and not due to the social factors essentially considered. This presented further biases attributed to sector and style. The purpose of this paper is to examine subsequent research in order to uncover the differences between the ethical investment mutual funds and the conventional investment mutual funds in order to determine whether the former performs better than the latter. This paper will not aim to discredit any research conducted, nor will it seek to be investigative but it will simply
Friday, November 15, 2019
Skinhead Subculture History Here is a definition of what is a skinhead: It is a young man of a subculture characterized by close-cropped hair and heavy boots, often perceived as aggressive, violent, and racist. Skinheads are not the evil fascist (Nazis) (as youve probably heard of many times on the news and so on). Indeed, one has to mention that theyre not all white or they dont even all have their heads shaved, although the majority do. Initially, the skinhead style emerged in 1966 from different elements which eventually gave one definite style by 1967. This continued, developed and matured until 1972, and then the real origins and reasons for the emergence of the cult get lost in outrage, acts of violence (and so far) to become for most people who grew up before the sixties and still nowadays, another unpleasant aspect of modern youth. This presentation is intended to try to understand the several issues in this subject, how the movement came about, how we could describe the archetypal skinhead of 1967-1972 period, how this subculture seemed to represent the multiculturalism and also to show the drifts towards extremism, focusing on the fact that it was only mainly excesses. The Skinheads, during this period, show such a pride and passion for their style that it seems as well very meaningful to tie this subculture to the notion Britishness. To what extent the skinhead subculture is linked to British values and traditions? ORIGINS To better apprehend where does it all comes from, it is impossible not to evoke the Mods movement. In Britain, in the late 1960s there existed a youth sub-culture known as Mods (cf. Swinging London). Mod (from modernist) is a subculture as well that originated in London, England in the 1950s and was at its height in the early-to-mid 1960s. The significant elements frequently associated to the subculture are fashion for example, music and motor scooters (Vespa). Youve probably all already seen their well-known symbol, which was originally The Royal Air Force roundel (cf. picture). After 1964, mods split up. (a lot of) hard mods or tough Mods (those who enjoyed most the fighting with Rockers in Brighton or Eastbourne) began to cut their hair close to the scalp (cuir chevelu), first as a fashion statement. But it was also due to the fact that it kept their hair out of their faces and on the other hand, made it impossible to grab during a fight. Moreover it was a way to be distinct from their enemies, the Rockers, who had long hairs and a quiff slicked back (=banane). So they soon evolved into Skinheads. Carnaby Street was no longer the symbolic place of the Swinging London it used to be, known nowadays for its awfully high number of touristsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦) and the fashion scene, and mods were simply swept away. Skinheads could be really identified as a separate group in 1968 because of their distinctive dress and appearance, the type of music which they liked and the tough, aggressive behaviour they displayed. The emergence of the skinhead style represented a counter-revolution. This revolution took place amongst the working class youth of London and other cities. The movement was non-political and gave off the impression of an aspiring white working class The skinhead style is smart, clean and tough. It is a precise uniform which proclaims identity. They rejected the finery and the slightly effeminate characteristics of the mods and the hippies for clothes that represented more their working class background. They needed clothes that would not get torn in a fight, which would stay neat. So, the famous skinhead itself is typically closely-shaved head for men and a Mod-style short feather cut for girls. The Ben Sherman trend prevailed from mod fashion with button-down, gingham (=vichy) shirts. The size of the check of the shirt (=carreaux) denoted your place in the gang the larger the check the more authority you had in the group. Sta-Prest (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sta-Prest) slack (=pants, falzar) and (tough working jeans were the choice of trousers. As a matter of interest it is said that there are many skinheads who would sit in a bath of water with their shrink-to-fit Levi 501 jeans to get the extreme skinny-legged look. Jeans were inevitably tucked into a pair of Dr Martens boots or industrial boots. The look was completed with a pair of braces (=bretelles) a trilby or pork pie hat and even donkey jackets, army greens. To give you a fuller description of their style, it is to be said that if daytime clothes were loose and hard wearing, clothes worn in the evening were well tailored and expensive. That is a feature which is less known. The aim was to outflash/impress/not to get unnoticed (everyone) at the dance hall. Hard Mods as well as the skinheads often lived in the same economically depressed areas of South London as West Indian immigrants and began to emulate (=imitate, follow the example of) what is known as the rude boy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rude_boy) look of pork pie hats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pork_pie_hat) and short Levi jeans; which is in fact a way to describe the black youths of the time. This leads us to emphasize some features (often forgotten/left out) that strongly prove the multiculturalism of the skinhead style. MULTICULTURALISM In establishing their own style, the younger brothers of the mods adopted certain elements of the mod style, combined them with items from traditional working clothes, borrowed some influences from the West Indian blacks and became skinheads. As weve just mentioned it, the other source of the skinhead style was the hip young West Indians of the inner city areas, such as Lambeth of Brixton (south of London). Their cool, disdainful attitude to strangers and their style and exuberance in the dance hall made them respected and admired by their white contemporaries. Indeed, the whites and the blacks mixed freely at dance halls and clubs, both indulging a common love of dancing and music. About their haircut for their example, one has to mention that again, this feature was copied from the West Indians who used it as part of their own hairstyles. Skinhead was not about colour, race, religion, national origin, or anything of the sort. It is a kind of brotherhood of individuals who share the same passions. Regarding the music now, and that is almost the most important feature of this subculture as any youth cult needs its own type of music. Music serves to identify and unify members of the group, as well as to entertain. The mods had soul, the Motown sound and beat music. It was necessary for the early skins to obtain a separate musical identity. They adopted the Jamaican music which the black communities in South East London had brought from their homeland and which was the popular music of the Rude Boys. The bouncy, jumpy beat in reggae was chosen by the skins and later, some specific skinhead records were even published. Because of the extrovert character of the West Indian blacks and of the music they played, there was no antagonism between skins and blacks. Indeed, many blacks were skinheads or formed their own crews, such as the Kilburn Blacks and the Kilburn Whites. Another import from Jamaica was Rastafarianism (To make a long story short, mystical cult based on and concerning the downfall of the white colonial races). As its popularity grew, the association of skins and blacks in a common form of music had come to an end. So, at the beginning, skinheads were not racist and more than this, the subculture was strongly rooted in the British values accepting and even taking part in the integration of different cultures such as the Jamaicans. VIOLENCE IN THE SKINHEAD SUBCULTURE AND DRIFTS TOWARDS EXTREMISM So how things turned bad? The escapism from the Skinheads gritty (=rough) industrial reality then took a darker turn (to the football terraces where) as these kids were also a major part of football hooliganism, which is an unfortunate tradition that still exists in Britain today. Once again, a deeply rooted tradition in British society. The aggressive football hooliganism against rival teams became their new entertainment. Each week fans donned (=revÃ ªtir) the colours of their team and rooted and cheered. (until their faces turned blue.) They also consumed a tremendous amount of alcohol. The highlight of every match was the brawl (=rixe, bagarre). The fights often would pour out into the streets and would involve chains, boots, fists, and anything else they could get their hands on (couteaux, tessons de bouteilles). What is weird is that they were these same thugs who we were talking about earlier. To relax after the fight (aprÃ ¨s la rencontre et les rixes), they would dress in the best threads (=fringues) that their blue-collar pay cheques could get them, and go and dance, party, and drink all night with the relatively large Jamaican immigrant population and the music they brought with them ska. Paradoxically, Ska and Reggae music often (influenced/associated by/to Rastafarian beliefs, support to the poor and unprivileged) was fashionable among this minor but violent subculture known as skinheads who were known for their racism and violence. Anyway, it is quite sad but football violence at the time was common and there was an increased policing of the fans. Also skins were extremely defensive of their own territory for example, and each gang, called a crew, had its own area which it defended. Contrary to black communities, Asian immigrants had a different, closed way of life and did not blend with traditional working class or East End ways of living. There was a threat of settlement by immigrants and a demolition or removal to overspill/overpopulated area. Skinhead violence may be seen as one response to such changes in society. They looked like an army and, went into action like one. That is one of the description of skinheads you could find. Also, generally, short hair is associated in the public mind with convicts, prison camp inmates and the military (that is to say violence). It was exactly this mean look which the skins wished to cultivate. This made them easy recruits for an ultra-right wing organisation, the National Front. They quickly earned a reputation for attacking blacks and Asians, as well as other minority groups such as hippies and gays. The sadly known Paki bashing appeared and was combined with queer bashing and even student bashing. This led to skinheads being both hated and feared. As the media caught on to this aspect of the cult, it caused some skins to leave the movement and in parallel more violent people to joint it. Eventually, this was one of the reasons which led to its decline in 1971/1972. There was no point in being a skin if you simply got caught by the police wherever you went. This also led to even more diversification among the skinhead ranks. An example in culture is the movie This Is England by the English director Shane Meadows. Not many directors are brave enough to out themselves as a teen racist, but for three weeks, at the age of 12, Shane Meadows fell in with the wrong crowd. He witnessed a horrific beating, which to this day fills him with shame. The event inspired this film, which documents the moment skinhead culture became ugly. It is a coming-of-age story set in a seaside town, in 1983, at the height of Thatcherism. Twelve-year-old Shaun Fields (the name is deliberately autobiographical) joins a gang of skinheads, but camaraderie gives way to tension as the National Front stir up (=remuer) racial hatred. Meadows says/testimonies/witnesses he understands how gangs fill a vacuum for youngsters with little hope. When youre 13 and youve got long, straggly hair and people are taking the piss out of your trousers, and you see this charismatic group of guys in smart Ben Shermans walking down the street, you want to be like them. CONCLUSION Skinheads created one of the most iconic youth movements ever to emerge in Britain. The sub genre known as Skinhead is of purely British origin, it is deeply rooted in a British tradition, for example through football and also connecting the British Isles to Jamaica and that what is interesting. But Skinheads crude political message of racism, hooliganism and street violence was much louder than its artistic one and, as a musical force, it quickly disappeared. It quickly became defined by terror, menace and racism. But beneath the shaved heads and steel-capped boots lay a more complex reality. In the early 1980s, skinheads of all types began to appear throughout the rest of Europe and the United States. Around this same time, many leftist skins began to organise in an effort to throw out the boneheads (cf.2). In 1986, a New York skinhead named Marcus, formed SHARP, which quickly spread throughout the rest of North America and Europe. The AFSA (cf.3) was formed specifically to expel boneheads from the scene. Example: In Toronto, a group of anti-fascist skins formed by a man named David Cheater consists almost completely of Jews. Skin Heads Against Racial Prejudice. Their term for the racist, fascist, Nazi, and other right-wing skinhead groups who were, in the eyes of the traditional skins, stealing their culture. Anti-Fascist Skinhead Alliance. I wanted to do them justice. Also what interested me were the differences between the prejudices and what is the reality behind this. A crew was predominantly a male group, like any other city gang, yet skinhead girls eventually became an accepted part of the scene. Moreover since only a policewoman can search a girl and there are fewer women police than men, girls became useful carriers of weapons or pills. The clothes of skinhead girls made them look superficially like the boys. Cant tell boys from girls from reporters.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The blues emerged as a distinct African-American musical form in the early twentieth century. It typically employed a twelve-bar framework and three-lined stanzas; its roots are based in early African-American songs, such as field hollers and work songs, and generally have a melancholy mood. The blues can be divided into many sub-genres, including Classical, Country, and Urban. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the careers of two of Classical blues most influential and legendary singers: Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith. Ma Rainey, considered by many to be the Ã¢â¬Å"Mother of the Blues,Ã¢â¬ was one of the first pioneers of the classical blues style. She sang with a deep, rich, and quite often rough contralto voice while the voices of her contemporaries a generation later were more harmonious. Rainey was an important figure in connecting the Classical blues, largely female dominated, with the predominately male Country blues.1 Born Gertrude Pridgett in Georgia in 1886 to parents who had both performed in the minstrel shows, she was exposed to music at a very early age. At the age of fourteen, she performed in a local talent show called Ã¢â¬Å"The Bunch of Blackberries,Ã¢â¬ and by 1900 she was regularly singing in public.2 Over the next couple of decades, she worked in a variety of traveling minstrel shows, including Tolliver's Circus and Musical Extravaganza, and the Rabbit Foot Minstrels; she was one of the first women to incorporate the blues into minstrelsy. It was while working with the Rabbit Foot Minstrels that she met William Rainey, whom she married in 1904; together, they toured as Ã¢â¬Å"Ma and Pa Rainey: Assassinators of the Blues.Ã¢â¬ By the early 1920s, she was a star of the Theater Owners' Booking Agency (TOBA), which were white-... ...line of Smith's career Ã¢â¬â and in Classical blues, in general Ã¢â¬â was due to changing trends in music. Classical blues was out, and Swing was now the music of choice. Smith, however, was determined to make a comeback. She began performing again, this time labeling herself as a Swing singer. But before she could re-establish herself as a household name, she passed away from injuries caused by an automobile accident. It was not until some years after her death that her music began to be popularized again. Her recordings with Armstrong became popular among jazz musicians and had great influence on singers such as Billie Holiday, who often listened to Smith's records for inspiration. Frank Sinatra held her in high esteem, and Janis Joplin often emulated Smith's voice in her singing. Bessie Smith was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1939.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
What general brain structures are involved in motivation and emotion? What role do these structures play in motivation and emotion? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the field of psychological and anatomical biology, the behavioral characteristics of the human psychology are mainly related to the activities and processes in the different regions and structure of the human brain. Physiologically, the brain controls the different behavior, mood, and other personal characteristics of the person through the functions and hormonal changes in the involved brain regions.Ã Included in these psychological characteristics are motivation and emotion wherein the development and formulation of these behavioral patterns are rooted n the psychobiological structure of the brain. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The aspect of motivation is mainly guided by two dominant concepts namely the reward system (appetitive motivation) and the fight or plea system (aversive motivation). Both of these psychological systems are guided by the hormonal changes and activities in the involved brain region. In particular, motivation in the human behavior is guided by the pleasure and reward mechanism of the brain wherein the human reacts towards the achievement of the benefit of his or her action. In this perspective, the role of the subcortical structure composed of the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and midbrain becomes significant as the development and regulation of motivation in the human behavior. These structures produce motivation through the manipulation of hormonal secretion such as dopamine and other pleasure sensors thus, creating the reward system and interest factor of the individual behavioral system. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Emotion on the other hand, is scientifically related to the limbic system, the basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, and likewise the subcortical system in the human brain as the brain region controlling the development and formulation of emotion in the human behavior. In the psychobiological perspective, emotion becomes the result of the altercation in the physiological behavior of the human body as the result of the hormonal secretion controlled by the human brain. In this concept, the involved region of the brain intercepts the stimulation from the sensory regions and controls the physiological system of the human body such as heartbeat, breathing rate, sweat secretion, and others creating the general emotional reaction of the human body. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In general, the physiological reaction of the human body creating the behavioral characteristic of the person becomes the product of the control of the human brain. The behavioral characteristic of the human person such as motivation and emotion are regulated and are controlled in the brain region. Ã Bibliography Westen, Drew (1998). Psychology: Mind, Brain & Culture. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2nd Edition. ISBN-10: 0471240494.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Process Behind Institutional Reform in Alberta essays The Process Behind Institutional Reform in Alberta By Ronald Kneebone and Kenneth McKenzie When the Klein government took office in 1993 they had one goal, to balance the budget without raising taxes. The Process of Institutional Reform in Alberta by Ronald Kneebone and Kenneth McKenzie outlines how the Klein government achieved the impossible; balancing Albertas budget without increasing taxes. The authors interviewed 48 individuals including members of the government, civil servants, bureaucrats and various other stakeholders. The general theme of these interviews was the process behind the cutbacks and institutional changes. Kneebone and McKenzie highlight the key points that were made by most interviewees as to how the government balanced the budget so effectively. The main elements to successful institutional reform and deficit reduction under the Klein government were: 1. The size and the speed of the cutbacks. 2. The source of Albertas deficit problem was that it had a spending problem, not a revenue problem. 3. The importance of a big spending cut. 6. The Allocation of Cuts Across Departments These eight factors were the backbone to institutional reform in Alberta. McKenzie and Kneebone also point out that Alberta was in a position that was ready for reform. They point out the policy reform is often typified by these six common elements (Wilsford, 1994): 1. The perception of crises- there was a definite perception of an impending financial crises in Alberta as a result of over 20 years of fiscal irresponsibility 2. The presence of a relatively simple, somewhat hierarchical political system that is able to act quickly- the Klein government began to implement cutbacks immediately upon election 3. Strong and determined political leader- na ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Vitamin C essays Over the past few years, vitamin c has been a topic of controversy. There have been studies stating that vitamin c can help prevent many various health problems including cancer and other life threatening diseases. The major researcher and name associated with this side of the research is Dr. Linus Pauling. However, there have recently been some studies that refute Paulings findings. These studies state that vitamin c has now been thought to have a negative effect on the body. However, the majority of these cases do not have sufficient enough evidence to back their claims. Therefore, the research world still points to vitamin c as being beneficial to our health. Vitamin c is a water-soluble vitamin and is also known as ascorbic acid. We as humans are one of the only animals whose bodies do not naturally create ascorbic acid. Therefore, a supplement vitamin c pill was originally created. This is the form of vitamin c that we are used to seeing. This is also the type of vitamin c that researchers are debating these days. Vitamin c is the most supplemented vitamin among Americans today. I believe that this is due to the positive effects associated with vitamin c. A recent study states that vitamin c has been proven to lower blood pressure. The Boston University School of Medicine and the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University conducted this study. A dose of 500 milligrams a day lowered blood pressure by up to 9 percent, a level comparable to prescription drugs (Hypertension). Despite this drastic change, researchers state that at this point vitamin c should not be viewed as a substitute to prescriptions. Throughout the majority of research on vitamin c posted on the Internet there is one idea that holds stronger than the rest. That is that vitamin c is a helpful beneficiary to our health. Nonetheless, it should not be viewed as a cure-all or as a substitute to any type of prescript...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Downsizing - Essay Example Downsizing would seem a better option out of the two which Terry Wilson can choose between downsizing and expanding his business realms. Downsizing would cut down on the costs while expanding his business would mean that he would have to incur more costs. Hence a better alternative under this scenario would be to lay off those employees whom he thinks are incapable of delivering the goods when the going gets tough for Tuscan Treasures. Keeping in line with the discussion here, the growth strategy that would work to good effect here would be one of downsizing. It will handle all the situations related with the employees and bring to a single level the cost issue where it starts getting out of hand. Another growth strategy would be to cut down on extra costs which would mean more incentives for the organization in the long run. This would mean that the organization grows as a whole and keeps its costs under a certain level. The third growth strategy which could be used here comprises of the diversification within small business domains but not actually expanding the business. This shall bring forth more profits for the company than it is getting at the present. The possible causes of WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s companyÃ¢â¬â¢s decline include the fact that there are significant issues which need to be resolved at the earliest. The employees are being delegated tasks well and hence not being given their share within the organizational settings.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Philosophy - Essay Example It can be studied as a property of brain. All the human activities are controlled by the instructions from the brain. Cognitive capacities include; the ability to analyze a situation, the ability to evaluate the doÃ¢â¬â¢s and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts, implementation of actions, understanding and analysis of ideas to form clear pictures about an incident, hypothesis formations, generalizations, anticipation of new possibilities, ability to understand the cause-and-effect linkages among a system etc. The intellectual levels of different human beings are different and hence the cognitive capacities also will be different from person to person. Ã¢â¬Å"According to the computational theory of mind (CTM), mental capacities are explained by inner computations, which in biological organisms are realized in the brainÃ¢â¬ (Gualtiero Piccinini). Human mind activities are more or less similar to that of a computer. A computer is providing us the output after a lot of computations. Whatever the instructions supplied to a computer is been processed inside the Central Processing Similarly our mind also will undergo lot of computing process before taking a decision. The instructions to the computer is been supplied through the keyboard or mouse while in the case of human being the instructions are obtained through the senses, ear, eyes, nose, tongue and skin. In the case of a computer the information will be processed in the CPU while in the case of human it is processed in the brain. For computers the instructions supplied from the keyboard or mouse will reach the CPU through address buses while in the case of human the instructions from the senses reaches the brain through nerves associated with the senses. Consider the case of a purchasing decision of a car by a person. He will decide about the car to be purchased only after lot of computations such as analyzing the data about different models of cars, evaluation of price factors, fuel economy, maintenance costs, resale value, his