Saturday, March 30, 2019
Leisure: From Ancient Greece To Today
blank utmost From antique Greece To TodayLeisure, use as an all-inclusive term to describe the import, conditions, functions, and fortune complex in which recreation / play occurs (Murphy, p. 22), and shag so be seen as a concept or study which lone(prenominal) offers training about the vogue in which concourse spend their spargon quantify, hardly is confusablely actually far more(prenominal)(prenominal) intriguing and multifaceted. An divulgeicipationing occurrence is that the term blank is derived from the Latin word licere or to be permitted to give all over from occupation or service (Murphy, p. 24), thus presentation the solvents of vacant world lay offhanded from the physical and forced activities like labour. In this paper I go away attempt to examine what precisely unfilled entails and how it can be linked to personal identity formation, as tumefy as depicting the developments in untenanted as a concept without history. In prescribe to do so, I will touch upon deuce-ace remarkable periods of the medieval first of all superannuated Greece as the period of the great philosophers, thus the period around 1900 in Western Europe, and finally I will research the significance of vacant in todays globalising world. Finally, to discuss the relationship among leisure and identity formation, I will incorporate the subsequent topics indoors all(prenominal) historical clipping frameThe concept and division/ approachability of leisureThe relation between work send out and leisureThe link between leisure and human developmentThe genial differences between individuals and groups of individualsAfter having discussed each succession period in detail and having thus constructed a command timeline of leisure, I will round up with a conclusion hoping to puzzle out in then found tells to the questions surrounding the nonion of leisure.Ancient GreeceAncient Greece, which is largely considered as the period from the Arc haic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BCE to 146 BCE and the papistic conquest of Greece subsequently the Battle of Corinth (Amazines), can be seen as the era of the great philosophers who we tranquillize recognize today. non plainly this is what makes Ancient Greece so fascinating, but this is excessively the period in which leisure as a concept emerged, with the cultivation of the self interpretation developed by Aristotle (384 B.C. 322 B.C.) (Murphy, p. 23). During these days, leisure was seen as an activity used to seek the truth, and the understanding of the self. Contemplation was key, and it was considered a notion of being free, and of not being occupied with work or other commitments. plainly which exact activities did leisure entail then? I believe that Anderson puts it properly, though from the Greco-Roman perspective They learned music and con scarper it and enjoyed the physical arts of war and sport. They were skilled in ingenious conversation, and that co nsumed very oftentimes time. But they rarely had an interest in talking about handiwork and ordinary labour or point cared to understand its meaning. In their way of life there was no hurry (Anderson, p. 91). Thus, leisure was at the root of society and its culture, and paved the way for galore(postnominal) great philosophers by dint of talented discussions.But for leisure to exist in the way it did in Ancient Greece as the time free from commitments or work, a distinction had to be made between individuals. This distinction was mainly to allow certain community to engage in leisure, while others were forced to engage in the diametrical of leisure labour and hard work. Or as Murphy puts it the dingy quality of the Ancient democracy gave the leisure program a customs of taste and elegance which was maintained by the nobility (Murphy, p. 24), consequently leisure was made possible for the privileged because thrall existed. The privileged used slavery as a way to express p ower and control, maybe even only for the sake of being in control over others. But dominating and bossing others around, are among the first activities that humans, newly empowered, discovered and enjoyed for their bear off in got sakes (Hunnicutt, p. 60), cover that leisure not only existed off contemplation and conversation, but also of horrid activities creating a division between groups of people. Still, undoubtedly servants and women held in whatever degree of bondage, were able to understand the difference between the times in their lives when service was required of them, and other times when they were free to do more of what they wished (Hunnicutt, p. 60). So, although leisure is mainly seen as a privilege for the higher classes of men, also the women and slaves experienced leisure to whatever extent. This shows that the approachability of leisure differed depending on your class of sexuality, but that around likely everybody experienced it to some extend in Ancien t Greece.Therefore, leisure should be seen as key to human development. Not only did it pave the way for great philosophers and religious men, others also used it in connection to their identity as it is part of human nature. For the Greeks, leisure was used as a cultural arena in which life-sustaining questions of human means and ends, of use of goods and services and hence of meaning, induct been addressed (Hunnicutt, p. 58), and thus gave room to answer significant questions concerning life and human-beings since man is a symbolizing, conceptualizing, meaning-seeking creature (Geertz, p. 140). Leisure could be seen as a means to understand the meaning of life, and come to know and develop the self. Leisure thus led to identity and self-development through personal growth and freedom, since the sign of an educated person was alive(p) leisure (Hunnicutt, p. 64).industrial RevolutionAfter the Ancient Greece timeframe as antecedently discussed, the leisure tradition established by the Greeks continued through the shopping mall Ages. The Liberal Arts taught in the universities, the understanding of work and leisure as means to ends, endured (Hunnicutt, p. 67). And when the Industrial Revolution was ongoing in Europe, leisure was still present but significant changes were bit by bit taking dwelling house in its character and the influence it held in daily life. It could be said that a revolution in human history and leisure occurred when capitalism transform the role of work, as one does not work to live, one lives to work (Pieper, p. 40). Then, work became a spiritual end in itself and was thought to answer the questions vis--vis leisure. It also started to take on a submissive role as it was used as a way to achieve and support the highest purpose work. Subsequently, work emerged out of the nineteenth century both as the rear of modern culture and as the glue that held societies together (Hunnicutt, p. 69), and basically took over the role leisure held in Ancient times.But even though work was key, the concept of spare time, and thus leisure, changed over time after the Industrial Revolution had left its mark. For example, farmers and factory-workers worked sixer ten-hours days from sunrise to sunset, and it was not until the sixty-hour work week of 1900 shrank to thirty-nine hours by 1975 (Rosenthal, p. 11), that people possessed more free time to spend on leisure activities of ones own choice. level though they still had to work hard the work ethic gradually changed, people now possessed a day, and later even two, during which they were free to choose what to do. It was no longer the master who possessed free time and told his slaves what to do, the whole day, every day. More money was now being made, and thus being spend during those few hours or days the workers had off and activities related to to sport, education, self-development, and entertainment started to rise. Also, the availability of more and cheaper goods due to the revolution led to an profit in the standard of living, and thus formation of identity. People were slightly and behind more able to establish themselves as different from others, and to use goods to identify with.Finally, it was only in the nineteenth century that the real impact of locomote would be fully felt (Robinson, B). Steam changed the availability of opportunities, as well as leisure. Work was performed faster and more efficient, and changes also happened geographically as factories could now be located anywhere, as well as the workers. expatriation increased due to the invention of railways, and thus leisure opportunities surfaced since people could conk out further and were no longer limited to the area they worked and lived in horizons easy widened.The Ancient Greeks were able to see leisure as their work, but the workers from the Industrial Revolution could only participate in leisure and non-work behaviour after their long days of labour. Not only the conte nt and value of leisure changed, but also the impact it had on the individual. Since the Industrial Revolution, Americans receive inherited a sociopsychological attitude which equates individual self-worth and productivity with working (Murphy, p. 27), thus showing the influence work had on life and ones goals. The Revolution created further interest in the individual in society and the responsibilities of society to them, together with the credit that the ultimate power within society is in the hands of those that are governed rather than the governing classes (Ouedraogo, D). The working class, and thereby the individual and his interests became more important, and people had more choices related to identity formation as mentioned before.Todays globalizing worldThe changes that took place in leisure in Ancient Greece and around the 1900s show its roots, but also the rudiments that have made leisure to be what it is today. Today, the ordinal century, leisure still takes up an i mportant place in umpteen aspects of peoples lives and is still seen as time free from work-related responsibilities (Murphy, p. 27), as well as obligatory household tasks. More and more activities are now pleasant forms of leisure, and more money and time is dedicated to them. Also, due to globalization much more is possible, since the world is brought closer to our home. We now have internet, television, mass media and facilitation of travel anything is possible. Too see what function leisure holds in todays society in relation to identity and development, I will look at it from the followers perspectives behavioural, psychological and social.Behaviour in leisure should be recognized as an expression of the individuals total self cognitive, affective, and motor domains are potentially move (Murphy, p. 29). Thus, pleasing in leisure is key to personal development since it touches upon many important aspects of the individual. Also, since behaviour is goal-directed, leisure ca n also be seen as as direct result of goal-seeking (Murphy, p. 29), and success or failure in such activities will strongly influence ones mental and physical state, as well as future participation. Also, according to the French sociologist Joffre Dumazedier, leisure fulfils three functions relaxation, entertainment, and personal development (Murphy, p. 30), again showing that leisure is key to self-development through exercising ones capacities.From the second and psychological perspective, leisure is also important for self-improvement, as to leisure means to be oneself, to express ones talents, ones capacities, ones potentials (Murphy, p. 30), as stated by Neulinger. Leisure is a state of mind and being, since it is then that one is free to choose what to do and engage in what brings satisfaction, fulfilment and pleasure. Thus, from the psychological perspective, it would tend to analyze leisure activities according to the postulate they satisfy (Murphy, p. 31), which can only b e fulfilled during free time and not through work in work like during the Industrial Revolution was the case. Examples are needs for sex, independence, understanding, getting along with others (Murphy, p. 32).The third perspective is that the social function of leisure, as the most significant determinant of what one does in leisure is membership in a social group. Leisure is a means for establishing and sustaining intramural solidarity (Murphy, p. 32). Friendship and kinship are crucial determents here, and belonging to a social circle with common interests is what individuals aim at through leisure. This can be seen when people participate in sports, theatre, crafts, or other clubs organized to bring those together who are alike. This can also be through identifying with others with similar education, occupation, race, or income some of the socioeconomic-demographic indicators.What also plays an important role in leisure, is the newfound carriage of choice in this globalizing world. So much is present and acquirable when it comes to activities, re springs, knowledge and goods that choice greatly penetrates our culture it has transformed not only how we live but also how we think and who we are (Rosenthal, p. 1), through the presence of excessive choice. We no longer have to give something up in order to gain something else, we can now sometimes have our prevention and eat it too (Rosenthal, p. 9) and now sacrifice les which made our wants become needs. We have embraced change, and the necessity to travel down all of lifes branches is real to us (Rosenthal, p. 9). Since we have excessive choice, our leisure has become so broad and open to our own preferences that we can maximize our own potentials through it. Also, since one hours work buys six times as much now as it did in 1900 (Rosenthal, p. 12) we can spend much more on leisure, and thus again have to choose less and have more.Today, we also develop ourselves through life-threatening leisure, which is the degree of solidness tied to an activity as the activity booking of these devotes shows a degree of intensity that is consistent with flow experience and a patterns of commitment that joins them with others in a unique ethos of shared meaning and intentness (Kleiber, p. 25). Leisure activities of this level can seem to work in some extent, but are free of choice and are therefore sources of self-esteem, self-actualization, and other psychological and social benefits (Kleiber, p. 25), showing the great link between serious leisure and development. Also, since leisure in todays globalizing world is less linked to gender and race and more and more available to everybody, it can be seen as a true sources for self-development and identity formation.Identity formation then takes place not only through serious leisure, but also through more general and simplified versions of leisure. For example, athletics perform sports as their work. For most, engaging in sport is a form of lei sure that brings pleasure and self-improvement, but for a true sportsman this is his identity. He is a footballer, he is a rugby player, he is a dancer. Wherever he will go, this part of him will be at the roots of his other actions since he is so serious about it and cannot afford letting other types of leisure take away from what he has achieved their identification and commitment is evident in join groups and sacrificing other aspects of life (Kleiber, p. 25). This is the same for musicians, many band members identify with their logical argument and consider the musician label to be indistinguishable from their identity.ConclusionLeisure can thus truly be seen as a source of self-development and identity formation. Even though leisure has gradually changed throughout the days and has even shown distinct characteristics during when comparing the timeframes, the core has remained the same free time dedicated activities of ones own choice used to better the self.To conclude, most noteworthy is the part leisure took up in an individuals life. In Ancient Greece, leisure mainly served as an activity that took up the entire day for the elite, whereas for the slaves it consisted of the smaller time free from the orders of the master. It was mainly used to engage in intellectual conversations, and plain activities like sports. During the Industrial Revolution this outlook changed, and work became most important and took over the role leisure used to hold in the lives of the elite self-improvement was achieved through work and not leisure. However, this was also the period when the workers started to protest and managed to receive a better work-week with more free time in the weekend time free to be dedicated to leisure since money was also more available. Finally, in todays society leisure takes up an maybe even more important role and is still the time dedicated to activities free of choice used to develop the self. Thus, leisure has unceasingly played an imp ortant role and its nature has remained constant, while its use and availability has changed.