Thursday, April 4, 2019
Nesting and Matrescence as a Birthing Strategy
Nesting and Matrescence as a Birthing Strategy brush up of Walsh (2006) Nesting and matrescence as distinctive features of a free-standing drive home centre in the UK.IntroductionThe provision of point-based midwifery awe in the current UK maternity c ar conniption is of high priority (Rosswurm and Larrabee, 1999). According to Kitson et al (2000) the carrying into action of search-derived evidence into clinical dress is mediated by the relationship between the attributes of the look in question, including the compositors case and disposition of the question evidence and its rigour and perceived quality the clinical context or setting indoors which the look for is applied and the transit of implementation and its effects on practice. investigate evidence kindle inform individual aspects of midwifery c atomic number 18, midwives attitudes and knowledge, or even the design and development of midwifery operate. While for many midwives and a nonher(prenominal) health a ccusation practitioners in that respect can be ongoing challenges in the practical integration of look into evidence into their work and professional role (Rosswurm and Larrabee, 1999), the value of research still lies in its rigour, workoutfulness and the specificity of findings (Stetler et al, 1998). For midwives, use of research evidence also means they can give out support women to make informed choices (Magill-Cuerdon, 2006), especially nearly place of birth, whilst keeping up to date (NMC, 2004).This essay addresses the critique of a qualitative research study focusing on elements of birth centre midwifery fearfulness. Birth centres have emerged as a real driver within the UK maternity model for bringing close better client satisfaction, better clinical outcomes and much alignment with normality in midwifery. They also represent the emergence of policy which is responsive to some(prenominal) aspects of womens (and midwives) choices (Beake and Bick, 2007).The article s were critiqued using a framework derived from the work of Rees (2003), and Cluett and go (2003), due to their familiarity to the author and their placidity of use. Both authors have a midwifery orientation, and while this critique has been informed by a orbital cavity of nursing, midwifery and general research sources, it is good to retain a midwifery orientation for the process itself. reappraisalTitle, Authors and FocusThe title of the study is clear and relates to the findings of the research and its focus on birth centre practice within the UK locality and maternity services paradigm. However, it does not refer to the record of the research, which would have allowed the reader to at one time identify the chthonicpinning research paradigm. The author is a Senior Lecturer in tocology within the UK, within a Midwifery question Unit. It would also have been utile to know what involvement the author force have had in the unit and how specialist their knowledge of the rese arch location was, to judge, for example, if there is any potential difference for bias (Polit and Hungler, 1995).Literature ReviewThe literature retread is placed within the Introduction section of the paper, and presents some(prenominal) a rationale for the research and a placement within the historical development of policy and practice. The nature of the review here firmly places the paper within a midwifery paradigm by critiquing historical applications of evidence within quantitative or scientific paradigms, which focus on pathology (Walsh, 2006). Conversely, theorists define the UK maternity services spectrum as being founded upon an holistic paradigm promoting normality, natural birth, choice, control and client-centred care (Beake and Bick, 2007). Walsh (2006) orients the discussion towards international write ups active intervention rates, and links the discussion to pace of birth. However, apart from this, there is very little critical military rank of existing res earch within the topic area rather the author refers to an earlier study to which he contributed evaluating quantitative research studies about free-standing birth centres (Walsh, 2006). The author also uses this section of the paper to define some terms and some of the focus of the paper. A more detailed research critique would have been enchant here (Baker, 2006 Cutcliffe and McKenna, 1999 Gerrish and Lacey, 2006 Holliday, 2002). investigate MethodologyThe author is explicit about having a qualitative approach, namely methodology, which is satisfactory for answering their research question (Walsh, 2006). The stated aim of the research was to explore the culture, beliefs, value, customs and practices around the birth process within an FSBC (Walsh, 2006 p 229). According to Cutcliffe and McKenna (1999) qualitative research methodologies can attempt to answer questions about clinical practice which may not be adequately addressed by quantitative research approaches. Ethnography is an established methodology for this kind of research, curiously relating to birth setting and to midwifery centred care, all considerably aligned with qualitative models (Rees, 2003) and theory generating research (Parahoo, 2006). The usefulness of research studies such as this may be linked to their fit with the issues concerned, and also with how detailed and rich (not to mention informative) the entropy derived are (Kearney, 2001). Such research also has the advantage of being more client-oriented (Parahoo, 2006). The methodology itself is out demarcationd clearly and certainly suggests not lonesome(prenominal) a deep grasp of the true meaning of ethnograpy but also the kind of depth of data it will produce (Baker, 2006).SampleThe author defines clearly the setting of the research, which is appropriate for an ethnographic study (Goulding, 2005), and defines the model as comprising 15 midwives, 10 maternity care assistant (all the clinical supply working at the centre) (a p urposive sample) and 30 women who agreed to be interviewed of which five allowed observation of their care (Walsh, 2006). The latter is draw as an opportunistic sample (Walsh, 2006), which is similar to a convenience sample and is the kind of sample most unremarkably required for this kind of research (Wilkinson, 2000). There is no detail provided about how this sample was recruited, and so it cannot be judged whether or not this was done ethically or if any coercion was involved (Rees, 2003). There are no details attached about the types of participants, or any demographic information which might stir transparency and allow the reader to evaluate the transferability of these findings (Grix, 2004). While sample size is not usually of issue in qualitative research (Rees, 2003), and in particular, in ethnographic research (Devane et al, 2004 Hicks, 1996), as it is the richness of the data which is most significant (Hek and Moule, 2006), the sample size does seem to be adequate, pa rticularly when the timescale and span of the research is considered. ethical ConsiderationsSome attention is paid to ethics, in that access was requested and afforded by the local PCT who have the building, and permission was secured from the hospital that employed the staff (Walsh, 2006). morality somittee was granted, and all participants provided informed written react (Walsh, 2006 p 229). Again, more detail here would have allowed the reader to evaluate the nature of the information and consent, and any early(a) ethical issues there might have been in the research process (Austin, 2001). Ethical issues should be of primary feather importance in carrying out research of this nature, particularly in observing women during the time of birth, when they are not only particularly vulnerable but also particularly exposed (Austin, 2001). Vulnerability of subjects should be considered in designing clinical research (RCN, 2004). Some caution is needed over understand the kinds of w omen recruited to the study and their take of vulnerability, for example (Rees, 2003).A slightly more critical view of the ethical dimensions of this paper would have been useful (Cooper, 2006). For example, while ethics committees of fundamental importance in research governance and have a significant responsibility for the protection of patients and participants (Cooper, 2006), this does not mean that they can ensure true informed consent is given and has continued to be given throughout the duration of the study. The Nuremburg encrypt (1949) underlines the need for voluntary consent, but could there have been any sense of obligation on the part of the research participants to take part? The Nuremburg Code (1949) boost places responsibility for determining the quality and nature of the consent upon each individual person who initiates, directs or engages in the research, and so this author would question whether or not having all the birth unit staff involved in the study might have introduced some pressure on women to participate. Hollway and Jefferson (2000) describe consent as a continual understanding of the implications of the research for the participant. There is no indication of how this has been addressed here. data Collection and AnalysisData collection is dealt with as briefly as the sample, analysis and literature review are treated. The author carried out observation followed by follow up interviews, taking field recordings (audio) which were get down the next day, and interviews with women, midwives and MCAs, all of which were audio recorded and transcribed (Walsh, 2006). This kind of data collection is suited to the research design (Moore, 2006 Easton et al, 2000).Walsh (2006) describes the analytical process as thematic analysis (p 230), using line by line coding which again is an established process for analysing qualitative textual data (Goulding, 2005 Holloway and Jefferson, 2000 Rees, 2003). The thematic analysis process is outlined, and one example of how the researcher arrived at the themes and meanings is provided, which enhances transparency and auditability (Cluett and Bluff, 2006). The author also discusses the process with reference to other literature. However, more detail here would have enhanced this section (Easton et al, 2006).FindingsAs is fitting for a qualitative paper, the findings are discussed in some detail, under sub-headings which clearly signpost the discussion for the reader and make it free to read and assimilate the information (Baker, 2006). The author also includes quotes from the textual data to exemplify the discussion (Rees, 2003). The findings are commented upon throughout, and there is an extension exploration of each theme. The themes wereThe turn to birth environment and settingAffect of the inaugural visitNesting responsesVicarious nestingCare as motheringDiscussion and Implications for PracticeThe findings from this paper have clear implications for the understanding of the design and provision of birth locations within the UK maternity services. They also have consequence for understanding the nature of midwifery practice, particularly within such a setting. The human side of caring was evident, from the behaviours of staff in making the environment positive and supportive, to the behaviours of women and staff during their time in the centre. The discussion section of the paper focuses on two elements of these findings, that of nesting as psychosocial safety (p 235) and Psychological safety and matrescence (Walsh, 2006 p 236). The author contextualises these findings within the current health check model, demonstrating a aim of involvement with women on the part of midwives that goes beyond clinical actions to something more nurturing and much more intimate. The complexities of womens experiences of birth are continually referred to in the literature, and yet there is little apparent significance paid to these when the overarching concern of live mother and live baby is trotted out as the final confession for any kind of maternity care that transgresses womens preferences or aflame responses. Choices in childbirth are in particular complex, and the kinds of decisions that women make about their birth location, experience and preferences are not only tie in to their individual preferences and knowledge but to the socially-acquired knowledge and attitudes they have developed, which are significantly affected by obstetric models and concerns over safety (Magill-Cuerden, 2006). It is apparent from this article that understanding the psychosocial, emotional and even spiritual dimensions of the birth environment, including the relationship with maternity care providers, provides depth of insight into womens needs and into what can realistically be offered them under that all-encompassing, frequently-touted term support. Women need to understand the factors that influence their decisions (Magill-Cuerden, 2006), but women and mi dwives also need to understand the ethical, emotional and relationship dimensions of their matrescence, the process of becoming a mother (Walsh, 2006).The implications for practice here are significant, because, working in the medical model of care, midwives are often hampered in their ability to provide the psycho-emotional or spiritual aspects of care and nurturing which are highlighted as so significant in this paper. Also, there may be midwives and maternity care assistants who do not have the requisite sensitivity, trust in women and themselves, and emotional intelligence to reach this level of practice. Walsh (2006) cites all-too-family unhelpful behaviours including paternalism, being patronising and indifference and fear of intimacy (p 238). Thus, it can be seen that for many midwives achieving what is described in this paper is not suitable. The anecdotal evidence from clinical midwifery practice is that, in the legal opinion of many, midwives who can achieve this state wo rk in the community or in birth centres, and those who cannot take for high risk, centralised maternity care areas in which they either can avoid this level of engagement with the client or are actively discouraged by organisational or ward culture from doing so.Walsh (2006) makes the side by side(p) recommendationThese findings lead me to believe that midwives should seek ways to rehabilitate nurture and love, derivative of matrescence, as familiar childbirth language and as mainstream caring activities in childbirth. (p 238).However, attention would also need to be paid to the effects on midwives themselves, who may suffer from emotional backlash or even burnout, particularly in the current UK context. This would also have implications for the nature of pre-registration midwifery education in the UK, because it would have to contract part of the process of becoming a midwife, and it is much harder to teach abstract aspects of becoming than it is to run soupcon drills and teach students how to critique research papers. However, if such a paper can be used as evidence to change practice, then it would, overall, be a positive change.ConclusionA critical evaluation of this qualitative paper has highlighted its strengths and weaknesses, in that the author has adhered to principles of qualitative research, has selected a question or area of interrogation which demands a qualitative approach, and has demonstrated an ability to use such research to reflect woman-oriented ways of sagacious (Hicks, 1996). There are limitations to the study, one of which is that the author does not really explore its limitations in any swell depth, but overall the quality of data analysis, exploration and discussion is such that the lack of detail about basic research principles is eclipsed. The author firmly locates the study within the current context, but could go further in exploring the impact on midwives if such principles do succeed in changing practice. While Cluett and Bluff (2006) state practice based on traditional knowledge is no longer acceptable (p 276, Walsh (2006) has interpreted traditional knowledge and tested it through a study of one particular birth setting, and provided a reasonable level of evidence (in terms of midwifery care at least) for the benefits of certain underlying principles of what has been dispose by the medical profession as the unimportant emotional side of maternity care.ReferencesAustin, W. (2001)breast feeding Ethics in an Era of Globalization. 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